The author wishes to acknowledge the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) and the Rockefeller Foundation for generously facilitating this research, as well as thank Dr Liu Haifang and Lucy Corkin for their mentorship.
1. A wide range of data sources was used, comprising personal interviews, primary sources, official documentation, policy documents, theoretical literature, as well as critiques and discussion papers from the media. Field research was performed in Luanda between 2 and 13 March 2009, then in Beijing between 22 April and 2 May 2009.
2. Brautigam D ‘China’s Challenge to the International Aid Architecture’, World Politics Review,1, 4, June 2009, pp. 1–10.
3. References to current programmes under Sino-Angolan military cooperation are cited in: Agência Angola Press ‘Angola, China strengthen military cooperation’, 26 May 2010, <http://www.portalangop.co.ao/motix/en_us/noticias/politica/2010/4/21/Angola-China-strengthen-military-cooperation,2805b35d-2949-4734-8712-f8d390d2337f.html>. People’s Daily Online ‘China, Angola vow to advance military ties’, 21 July 2010, <http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/90883/7074548.html>.
4. Interview, Professor Li Anshan, Peking University, 23 April 2009, Beijing.
5. The ‘One China’ policy infers to the People’s Republic of China’s position on Taiwan and its contested sovereignty. In foreign affairs, countries that seek diplomatic relations with the PRC must denounce official relations with Taiwan and recognise it as a territory of the PRC.
6. Much of FOCAC’s 2006 Beijing Action Plan is drawn from the whitepaper of China’s African Policy that was released in January 2006.
7. Interview, Qiu Bohua, FOCAC Ambassador, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 24 April 2009, Beijing.
8. Varied studies have been conducted, including: Sachs JD & AW Warner ‘Sources of slow growth in African economies’, Journal of African Economies, 6, 3, 1997, pp. 335–76. Collier P & G Gunning ‘Why has Africa grown slowly?’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 13, 3, 1999, pp. 3–22.
9. Reisen H Is China Actually Helping Improve Debt Sustainability in Africa. Paris: OECD, 2007.
10. World Bank ‘China Eximbank and World Bank come together to sign cooperation memo’, news release: 2007/EAP/376, 21 May 2007, accessed 12 August 2009, <http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:21342649~menuPK:51062075~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html>.
11. AfDB AfDB and China Development Bank sign a Memorandum of Understanding-Partnership will Focus on Africa’s Economic Development Activities, 1 September 2008, accessed 17 August 2009, <http://www.afdb.org/en/news-events/article/afdb-and-china-development-bank-sign-a-memorandum-of-understanding-partnership-will-focus-on-africas-economic-development-activities-2006/>.
12. The New Atlantis, ‘Power hungry China: The international consequences of China’s quest for energy’, 4, 2004, <http://www.thenewatlantis.com/publications/power-hungry-china>.
13. Onuoha G ‘Energy and security in the Gulf of Guinea: A Nigerian perspective’, South African Journal of International Affairs, 16, 2, p. 247.
14. Emmanuel VW ‘Chinese investments in Angola’, in Baah AY & H Janch Chinese Investments in Africa: A Labour Perspective. Windhoek: African Labour Research Network, 2009, p. 369.
15. Campos I & A Vines Angola and China: A Pragmatic Partnership. London: Chatham House, 2008.
16. Corkin L AERC Scoping Exercise on China–Africa Relations: The Case of Angola. Nairobi: The African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), 2008.
17. MOFCOM Minister of Commerce Chen Deming Meets with Angolan Prime Minister Kassoma and Holds Separate Talks with Angolan Ministers of Finance and Trade, 2009, accessed 28 May 2009, <http://chendeming2.mofcom.gov.cn/aarticle/activity/200901/20090106017698.html>.
18. Calculated from data from <http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=36612>.
19. FightingMalaria Country Profile/President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI): Angola, 2010, <http://www.fightingmalaria.gov/countries/profiles/angola_profile.pdf>.
20. AllAfrica ‘Angola: Health minister says war hindered HIV/AIDS spread in nation’, 18 March 2010, <http://allafrica.com/stories/201003190964.html>.
21. Ministry of Finance Obras do Governo – Saúde, 2009, <http://www.minfin.gv.ao/docs/dspSaude.htm>.
22. Ministry of Finance Lihna de Crédito com o Exim Bank da China: Projectos Concluído. Luanda: Gabinete de Apoio Técnico, 2007.
23. MacauHub Chinese Builder COVEC Interested in State–Private Partnerships in Angola, 2006, <http://www.macauhub.com.mo/en/news.php?ID=832>. Agência Angola Pres ‘Luanda governor fires hospital directors’, <http://www.portalangop.co.ao/motix/en_us/noticias/saude/Luandas-governor-fires-Hospitals-directors,f6ca083f-6126-44d9-b68f-1ee34160c9a1.html>.
24. Interview, Chinese Economic and Counsellor Office, 9 March 2009, Luanda.
25. To assist in combating malaria, which is a pandemic across the continent, Beijing donates anti-malaria medication to African countries. Angola’s Ministry of Health received some RMB 2 million worth of medication (approximately US$ 300,000) on 9 April 2009. Such provisions increase the availability of the medication, but its distribution remains a challenge. Source: Author interview with Chinese Ambassador to Angola, 10 March 2009, Luanda.
26. Angola Xyami ‘Entrevista a Anasta′cio Rube′n Sicato Ministro da Sau′de do Governo do Angola (GURN)’, 22 April 2008 <http://www.angolaxyami.com/Personagens-Entrevistaa-Anastacio-Ruben-Sicato-Ministro-da-Saude-do-Governo-de-Angola-GURN.html> (accessed 15 November 2010).
27. All Africa ‘Angola: Luanda Central Hospital Reinforces Medical Staff ’ 14 April 2009, <http://allafrica.com/stories/200904150691.html> (accessed 15 November 2010).
28. Golden Nest Angola Lda, a Chinese company by origin, has been operating in Angola since 2001.
29. Interview, Golden Nest Lda, 8 May 2009, Luanda.
30. Interview, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation – Asia and Oceania, 5 March 2009, Luanda.
31. Angolan Ministry of Finance Obras do Governo – Educação, 2009, <http://www.minfin.gv.ao/docs/dspEducacao.htm>.
32. Interview, Instituto Nacional de Bolsas de Estado, 10 March 2009, Luanda.
33. CIA World Factbook Angola, 2009, accessed 2 June 2009 <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html>.
34. Interview, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, 12 March 2009, Luanda.
35. Agência Angola Press ‘Premier wants food production research’, 30 April 2009, <http://www.portalangop.co.ao/motix/en_us/noticias/economia/Premier-wants-food-production-research,2f1bec58-fc80-475c-b187-f9990198d44f.html>.
36. Ministry of Finance Lihna de Crédito com o Exim Bank da China: Projectos Concluído. Luanda: Gabinete de Apoio Técnico, 2007. A local informant suggested that the distribution of the machinery needed to be reviewed, commenting that no training is offered for mechanics in maintenance. As a result, many new tractors that should have a 10-year lifeline are already in disrepair.
37. Angolan Ministry of Finance Obras do Governo – Agricultura e Pescas, 2009, <http://www.minfin.gv.ao/docs/dspProjIrrigaAgri.htm>.
38. MacauHub ‘Angola: Chinese company builds Gangelas dam in Huila province’, 2008, <http://www.macauhub.com.mo/en/news.php?ID=5410>.
39. Agência Angola Press ‘Angola gets over 400 new fishing boats’, 17 February 2009, <http://www.portalangop.co.ao/motix/en_us/noticias/economia/Angola-gets-over-400-new-fishing-boats,01c86a34-1e35-4e9a-bdd9-8cc5ec9e77d8.html>.
40. July 2010 estimate, from CIA World Factbook, ‘Angola’, accessed 14 October 2010, <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html>.
41. Interview, Centro de Estudos Estrategicos de Angola (CEEA — Strategic Studies Centre of Angola), March 2009, Luanda.
42. Agência Angola Press ‘Angolan delegation ends visit to China’, 19 April 2009, <http://www.portalangop.co.ao/motix/en-us/noticias/economia/2009/3/16/Angolan-delegationends-visit-China,650ea4c1-2633-4467-896d-5d75497b4c4f.html>.
43. ‘China’s involvement in Angola: Mutually beneficial commercial pragmatism’ The China Monitor, a publication of The Centre for Chinese Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Stellenbosch University, 38, March 2009, p. 8, <http://www.ccs.org.za/wpcontent/uploads/2009/05/china-monitor-march-2009.pdf> (accessed 15 November 2010).
44. China View ‘China starts construction of housing project in Angola’s capital’, 2008, <http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-11/12/content_10343689.htm>.
45. Agência Angola Press ‘Luanda’s stadiums construction going as planned’, 28 January 2009, accessed 10 June 2009, <http://www.portalangop.co.ao/motix/en_us/noticias/desporto/Luanda-stadiums-construction-going-,planned,a30a4536-0142-4fd4-86f9-69995816a72a.html>.
46. AllAfrica ‘MO Happy with construction work of Luanda stadium’, 10 June 2009, accessed 2 July 2009, <http://allafrica.com/stories/200906100719.html>.
47. Ministry of Transport Ministro dos Transportes visita infra-estruturas na Huila, 22 July 2008, <http://www.angola-portal.ao/MINTRANS/NoticiaD.aspx?Codigo=4496>.
48. ‘CMEC successfully signed electrification project for southern suburbs of Luanda in Angola’, Sinomach 2009.
49. Interview, CMEC, 9 March 2009, Luanda.
50. Liu Haifang, ‘China_Africa relations through the prism of culture * the dynamics of China’s cultural diplomacy with Africa’, China Actuelle, Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, 38, 3, 2008, pp. 9–46.
51. MOFCOM Angola. 28 April 2007, accessed 6 July 2009, <http://ao.mofcom.gov.cn/aarticle/sqfb/200704/20070404624639.html> Article in Chinese.
52. Interview, Chinese Economic and Counsellor Office, 9 March 2009, Luanda.
53. See Emmanuel VW ‘Chinese investments in Angola’, in Baah AY & H Janch Chinese Investments in Africa: A Labour Perspective. Windhoek: African Labour Research Network, 2009.
54. Refer to Article 18 (b) of the Basic Private Investment Law.
55. According to Angola’s private investment law, foreign investors are required to provide an Angolanisation plan that stipulates their strategy for human resources, training, skills development and the replacement of expatriate staff with competent Angolan citizens over a set period of time.
56. For instance, there are three very prominent Portuguese firms in Angola currently working on contracts of similar magnitude as the Chinese enterprises, namely Teixeira Duarte, Soares da Costa and Motal Engil.
57. The Paris Club consists of 19 members: Austria; Belgium; Canada; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany; Ireland; Italy; Japan; Netherlands; Norway; Russia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; the UK; and the USA.
58. AfDB/OECD African Economic Outlook: Angola, 2008, p. 129.
59. AfDB/OECD African Economic Outlook: Angola, 2008, p.129.
60. World Bank Angola: Key Development Data & Statistics. 2007, accessed 20 August 2009, <http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/DATASTATISTICS/0,,contentMDK:20535285~menuPK:1192694~pagePK:64133150~piPK:64133175~theSitePK:239419,00.html>.
61. Easterly W ‘How did heavily indebted poor countries become heavily indebted? Reviewing two decades of debt relief’, World Development, 30, 10, 2002, pp. 1677–696.
62. Reisen H Is China Actually Helping Improve Debt Sustainability in Africa. Paris: OECD, 2007.
63. Interview, Qiu Bohua, FOCAC Ambassador, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 24 April 2009, Beijing.
64. ForumChinaplp. 2009, accessed 25 May 2009, <http://www.forumchinaplp.org.mo/zh/notice.asp?a=20080111_01>.
65. China Daily ‘Angola China’s largest African trade partner’ <http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2009-01/19/content-740791.html> (accessed 19 January 2009).
66. For discussion of these issues, see for instance ‘Good governance in Angola: Parliamentary accountability and control’, Chr Michelson Institute, accessed 14 October 2009, http://www.cmi.no/research/project/?386_good-governance-in-angola, and De Morais RM ‘Angola: The presidency *epicentre of corruption’, allafrica.com, 5 August 2010, accessed 14 October 2010, http://allafrica.com/stories/201008060882. html; and Campos I & AVines, ‘Angola and China: A pragmatic relationship’, Working Paper presented at a CSIS conference, ‘Prospects for Improving US_China_Africa Cooperation’, 5 December 2007.
67. Burke C, L Corkin & L Tay China’s Engagement of Africa: Preliminary Scoping of African case studies: A Scoping Exercise Evaluating China’s Engagement of Six African Case Studies, prepared for the Rockefeller Foundation. Stellenbosch: Centre for Chinese Studies, 2007, p. 34.
68. Burke C, L Corkin & L Tay China’s Engagement of Africa: Preliminary Scoping of African case studies: A Scoping Exercise Evaluating China’s Engagement of Six African Case Studies, prepared for the Rockefeller Foundation. Stellenbosch: Centre for Chinese Studies, 2007, p. 34.