eastern province saudi: Topics by Science.gov

  1. Petrogenesis of basalts from the Archean Matachewan Dike Swarm Superior Province of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Dennis O.


    The Matachewan Dike swarm of eastern Ontario comprises Archean age basalts that were emplaced in the greenstone, granite-greenstone, and metasedimentary terrains of the Superior Province of Canada. The basalts are Fe-rich tholeiites, characterized by the near ubiquitos presence of large, compositionally uniform, calcic plagioclase. Major and trace element whole-rock compositions, along with microprobe analyses of constituent phases, from a group of dikes from the eastern portion of the province, were evaluated to constrain petrological processes that operated during the formation and evolution of the magmas. Three compositional groupings, were identified within the dikes. One group has compositional characteristics similar to modern abyssal tholeiites and is termed morb-type. A second group, enriched in incompatible elements and light-REE enriched, is referred to as the enriched group. The third more populated group has intermediate characteristics and is termed the main group. The observation of both morb-type and enriched compositions within a single dike strongly argues for the contemporaneous existence of magmas derived through different processes. Mixing calculations suggest that two possibilities exist. The least evolved basalts lie on a mixing line between the morb-type and enriched group, suggesting mixing of magmas derived from heterogeneous mantle. Mixing of magmas derived from a depleted mantle with heterogeneous Archean crust can duplicate certain aspects of the Matachewan dike composition array.

  2. Grain size statistics and depositional pattern of the Ecca Group sandstones, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiyegunhi, Christopher; Liu, Kuiwu; Gwavava, Oswald


    Grain size analysis is a vital sedimentological tool used to unravel the hydrodynamic conditions, mode of transportation and deposition of detrital sediments. In this study, detailed grain-size analysis was carried out on thirty-five sandstone samples from the Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Grain-size statistical parameters, bivariate analysis, linear discriminate functions, Passega diagrams and log-probability curves were used to reveal the depositional processes, sedimentation mechanisms, hydrodynamic energy conditions and to discriminate different depositional environments. The grain-size parameters show that most of the sandstones are very fine to fine grained, moderately well sorted, mostly near-symmetrical and mesokurtic in nature. The abundance of very fine to fine grained sandstones indicate the dominance of low energy environment. The bivariate plots show that the samples are mostly grouped, except for the Prince Albert samples that show scattered trend, which is due to the either mixture of two modes in equal proportion in bimodal sediments or good sorting in unimodal sediments. The linear discriminant function analysis is dominantly indicative of turbidity current deposits under shallow marine environments for samples from the Prince Albert, Collingham and Ripon Formations, while those samples from the Fort Brown Formation are lacustrine or deltaic deposits. The C-M plots indicated that the sediments were deposited mainly by suspension and saltation, and graded suspension. Visher diagrams show that saltation is the major process of transportation, followed by suspension.

  3. The noncommunicable disease outcomes of primary healthcare screening in two rural subdistricts of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central


    Background Middle and lower income countries are challenged with a double burden of disease: while still coping with the onslaught of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and increasing levels of tuberculosis (TB), there is a considerable increase in the level of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). The poor are especially disadvantaged and are at an increased risk for NCDs. Adequate healthcare resources for this environment can only be allocated once the extent and exact nature of the problem is determined. Aim and setting The aim of this study was to collect demographic and NCD-related data in the poorest community of the poorest province of South Africa in order to determine the extent of the problem and advise on allocation of resources accordingly. Methods Data were collected via a household primary health screening process, which included taking anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and blood glucose and referring to clinics for further testing and treatment where necessary. Results It was found that the population screened was generally older, consisted of women, and had a high incidence of obesity and hypertension. Of note was the fact that in those without known hypertension, close to 40% of individuals had possible newly diagnosed hypertension. This increased with increase in age and body mass index (BMI). The total prevalence of diabetes was close to 5%, but possible new diabetes was considerably lower at approximately 1%. Conclusion In this rural area of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, undiagnosed hypertension is a major concern and renewed efforts at detection and control are warranted. PMID:29113445

  4. Pachybrachis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae) of Eastern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Barney, Robert J.; LeSage, Laurent; Savard, Karine


    Abstract Seventeen Pachybrachis species occurring in eastern Canada [Ontario (ON), Québec (QC), New Brunswick (NB), Nova Scotia (NS), and Prince Edward Island (PE)] are treated by the authors. Two new national records were discovered, both from southernmost Ontario: P. cephalicus Fall and P. luctuosus Suffrian. Four species were new provincial records: P. cephalicus (ON), P. luctuosus (ON, QC), P. obsoletus Suffrian (NB), P. peccans (PE). A fully illustrated key to the Pachybrachis of eastern Canada is provided and supported with extensive photographs, distribution maps, and plant associations. Three species were distributed from southern Ontario into at least one province in the Maritimes (P. nigricornis (Say), P. obsoletus Suffrianand P. peccans Suffrian). Six species were distributed along the shores of the Great Lakes (Erie, Michigan, and Ontario) and rivers (Ottawa, Saguenay and St. Lawrence), but unknown from central and northern ON and QC (P. bivittatus (Say), P. hepaticus hepaticus (F. E. Melsheimer), P. othonus othonus (Say), P. pectoralis (F. E. Melsheimer), P. spumarius Suffrianand P. trinotatus (F. E. Melsheimer)). Seven species were rare, five being found exclusively from southern ON (P. calcaratus Fall, P. cephalicus, P. luridus (Fabricius), P. subfasciatus (J. E. LeConte)and P. tridens (F. E. Melsheimer)), with two having, in addition, a disjunct population in QC (P. atomarius (F. E. Melsheimer)and P. luctuosus). One species was found to be the northern most extension of an eastern United States (US) distribution into the eastern townships of QC (P. m-nigrum (F. E. Melsheimer)). There were no Pachybrachis that could be considered arctic, subarctic, or boreal species; no specimens were found from Labrador and Newfoundland, and all species had southern affinities. Pachybrachis atomarius, P. calcaratus, P. luridus, P. subfaciatus, and P. tridens, not seen over the last 30–70 years, may be extirpated from eastern Canada. PMID:24163583

  5. State of health economic evaluation research in Saudi Arabia: a review.


    Al-Aqeel, Sinaa A


    If evaluation of economic evidence is to be used increasingly in Saudi Arabia, a review of the published literature would be useful to inform policy decision-makers of the current state of research and plan future research agendas. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of the state of health economic evaluation research within the Saudi context with regard to the number, characteristics, and quality of published articles. A literature search was conducted on May 8, 2011 to identify health economic articles pertaining to Saudi Arabia in the PubMed, Embase, and EconLit databases, using the following terms alone or in combination: “cost*”, “economics”, “health economics”, “cost-effectiveness”, “cost-benefit”, “cost minimization”, “cost utility analysis”, and “Saudi”. Reference lists of the articles identified were also searched for further articles. The tables of contents of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal and the Saudi Medical Journal were reviewed for the previous 5 years. The search identified 535 citations. Based on a reading of abstracts and titles, 477 papers were excluded. Upon reviewing the full text of the remaining 58 papers, 43 were excluded. Fifteen papers were included. Ten were categorized as full economic evaluations and five as partial economic evaluations. These articles were published between 1997 and 2010. The majority of the studies identified did not clearly state the perspective of their evaluation. There are many concerns about the methods used to collect outcome and costs data. Only one study used some sort of sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of uncertainty on the robustness of its conclusions. This review highlights major flaws in the design, analysis, and reporting of the identified economic analyses. Such deficiencies mean that the local economic evidence available to decision-makers is not very useful. Thus, building research capability in health economics is warranted.

  6. Vocational Education to Meet the Needs of a Changing Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    Faced with sizable oil revenues and the need and desire to expand and diversify its industrial potential, Saudi Arabia is improving its vocational training efforts and attempting to involve as many of its citizens in vocational training programs as possible. At present, Saudi Arabia is having to import skilled workers to keep up with necessary…

  7. Indo-Pacific echinoids in the tropical eastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessios, H. A.; Kessing, B. D.; Wellington, G. M.; Graybeal, A.


    The existing literature reports that only one species of Indo-Pacific echinoid ( Echinometra oblonga), occurs in the eastern Pacific. In this study we confirm the presence of this species at Islas Revillagigedo and also report the presence of two species of Echinothrix (a genus hitherto unknown outside the Indo-Pacific) at Isla del Coco and at Clipperton Island. We also present evidence from isozymes and from mitochondrial DNA sequences indicating that at least one individual of Diadema at Clipperton may belong to a maternal lineage characteristic of the west Pacific species D. savignyi. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the observed populations of Indo-Pacific echinoid species are recent arrivals to the eastern Pacific, as opposed to the view that they are relicts of Tethyan pan-tropical distributions. Echinothrix diadema, in particular, may have arrived at Isla del Coco during the 1982-1983 El Nifio. In addition to Indo-Pacific species, Clipperton, Isla del Coco and the Revillagigedos contain a complement of eastern Pacific echinoids. The echinoid faunas of these islands should, therefore, be regarded as mixtures of two biogeographic provinces. Though none of the Indo-Pacific species are known to have reached the coast of the American mainland, their presence at the offshore islands of the eastern Pacific suggests that, for some echinoids, the East Pacific Barrier is not as formidable an obstacle to migration as was previously thought.

  8. The Saudi Thoracic Society pneumococcal vaccination guidelines-2016

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, N. S.; Al-Barrak, A. M.; Al-Moamary, M. S.; Zeitouni, M. O.; Idrees, M. M.; Al-Ghobain, M. O.; Al-Shimemeri, A. A.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.


    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Saudi Arabia is a host to millions of pilgrims who travel annually from all over the world for Umrah and the Hajj pilgrimages and are at risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia or invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). There is also the risk of transmission of S. pneumoniae including antibiotic resistant strains between pilgrims and their potential global spread upon their return. The country also has unique challenges posed by susceptible population to IPD due to people with hemoglobinopathies, younger age groups with chronic conditions, and growing problem of antibiotic resistance. Since the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease is constantly changing, with an increase in nonvaccine pneumococcal serotypes, vaccination policies on the effectiveness and usefulness of vaccines require regular revision. As part of the Saudi Thoracic Society (STS) commitment to promote the best practices in the field of respiratory diseases, we conducted a review of S. pneumoniae infections and the best evidence base available in the literature. The aim of the present study is to develop the STS pneumococcal vaccination guidelines for healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. We recommend vaccination against pneumococcal infections for all children <5 years old, adults ≥50 years old, and people ≥6 years old with certain risk factors. These recommendations are based on the presence of a large number of comorbidities in Saudi Arabia population <50 years of age, many of whom have risk factors for contracting pneumococcal infections. A section for pneumococcal vaccination before the Umrah and Hajj pilgrimages is included as well. PMID:27168856

  9. Prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Saudi Arabia.


    Alsuwat, Obaidallah Buraykan; Alzahrani, Abdulrahman Ahmad; Alzhrani, Mohammed Abdullah; Alkhathami, Ali Mesfer; Mahfouz, Mohammad Eid Mahmoud


    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common chronic gastrointestinal tract disease. The incidence is higher in Asian and Arab countries. In Saudi Arabia, there are few studies that have assessed the prevalence of GERD among some cities’ communities. Hence, this study aims to study the prevalence of GERD among the general population of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of GERD among the community of Saudi Arabia. The sample was randomly gathered through self-administered validated GERD questionnaire (GerdQ) to diagnose GERD, during the period from November to December 2016. The sociodemographic data was assessed for all participants. The data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21.0 (SPSS); the t -test was used to assess the association of GERD and sociodemographic data. The sample was comprised of 2,043 participants. Female and male were 51.8% and 48.2%, respectively. Mean age was 29.6 years with the standard deviation of 10.5 years. The GERD prevalence was 28.7%. It was found statistically significant among divorced/widow (34.9%, P = 0.003). In contrast, there was no association between GERD’s prevalence and gender, age, residence status, education level, occupation, and blood group (P > 0.05). The prevalence of GERD among Saudi population is higher than that in Western countries and East Asia. It affects divorced/widow, obese and those with a sedentary lifestyle. It is advocated that national programs and educational campaigns for prevention of this disease and its complications should be established.

  10. Distribution and determinants of tuberculosis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 2005 to 2012.


    Almutairi, Fahad M; Tayeb, Tamara; Alhakeem, Raffat; Saeed, Abdulaziz Bin; Assiri, Abdullah; McNabb, Scott J N


    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health threat in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) with many challenges that limit its prevention and control. To understand how to meet these challenges, this study calculated the TB incidence rates (IRs) in KSA from 2005 to 2012, which were stratified by nationality, sex, and administrative regions. Furthermore, laboratory capabilities were assessed by determining the proportion of laboratory-confirmed TB cases. The overall TB IRs decreased from 15.80/100,000 population in 2005 [95% confidence interval (CI)=15.29-16.31] to 13.16/100,000 population in 2012 (95% CI=12.74-13.58). The IRs were greater for males than for females from 2009 to 2012. The IRs of non-Saudis were approximately two times those of Saudis during the study period. Mecca had greater IR during the study period compared with other regions [25.13/100,000 (95% CI=24.7-25.56)]. Among non-Saudis, those from Indonesia and Yemen had the greatest proportion of TB cases (15.4% and 12.9%, respectively). Individuals <15years of age comprised 14.2% of the TB cases. Employed non-Saudis had the greatest proportion of TB (32%), followed by unemployed Saudis (22.38%). The proportion of laboratory-confirmed cases of reported TB was 57% from 2005 to 2012. For effective prevention and control, TB screening should be implemented for non-Saudi workers at ports of entry and laboratory-screening capacity for TB should be evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of congenital color vision defects in Saudi females of Arab origin.


    Alabdelmoneam, Mussaed


    Inherited color vision deficiencies (CVD) vary in prevalence by population and by sex. The most common CVD is X chromosome-linked anomalous trichromacy. Prevalence varies significantly by sex and race. The frequency of color vision defects in Saudi females has not been studied previously. This study surveyed the prevalence of congenital color vision defects in Saudi females of Arab origin. Seven thousand four hundred sixty-seven female subjects (N = 7,467) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were screened using both Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates and the Farnsworth Dichotomous test (D-15). CVD subjects were tested further with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test. Of 7,467 female subjects tested, 26 subjects were found to have defective color vision, for a prevalence of 0.35%. Sixteen subjects had a deutan defect, and 10 had a protan defect. Arab females have significantly lower prevalence of CVD when compared with published data from females of other races. Analysis of the 5 regions of Saudi Arabia showed no significant difference between the regions. Prevalence of CVD among Saudi females of Arab origin is 0.35% and is among the lowest of all published data. Copyright © 2011 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The use of performance-enhancing substances (doping) by athletes in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Ghobain, Mohammed


    BACKGROUND: Data on doping violation in Saudi Arabia are scarce. Our aim was to investigate the Saudi experience of anti-doping and review all positive samples and adverse analytical findings (AAFs) of Saudi athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study analyzed databases of the Saudi Arabian Anti-Doping Committee from 2008 to May 2016. The samples originated from various sporting events and were collected in and outside sport competitions. The substances investigated were those included in the annual lists of prohibited substances produced by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). All urine samples were tested in laboratories accredited by the WADA. Samples were declared positive if they contained any prohibited substance on the WADA list for that year. RESULTS: In 4482 urine samples tested, 141 positive samples (3.1%) and 195 AAFs of prohibited substances were detected. The prevalence of positive samples was highest in 2012 (6.6%) and lowest in 2015 (1%). The most prevalent prohibited substances detected were anabolic steroids (32.8%) and stimulants (27.6%). The most frequently detected compounds were amphetamines (22%) and tetrahydrocannabinol (12.8%). The highest prevalence of AAFs was in bodybuilders. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of doping in Saudi Arabia seems to be higher than western countries, but this needs to be confirmed with further research. PMID:28932159

  13. The use of performance-enhancing substances (doping) by athletes in Saudi Arabia.


    Al Ghobain, Mohammed


    Data on doping violation in Saudi Arabia are scarce. Our aim was to investigate the Saudi experience of anti-doping and review all positive samples and adverse analytical findings (AAFs) of Saudi athletes. This study analyzed databases of the Saudi Arabian Anti-Doping Committee from 2008 to May 2016. The samples originated from various sporting events and were collected in and outside sport competitions. The substances investigated were those included in the annual lists of prohibited substances produced by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). All urine samples were tested in laboratories accredited by the WADA. Samples were declared positive if they contained any prohibited substance on the WADA list for that year. In 4482 urine samples tested, 141 positive samples (3.1%) and 195 AAFs of prohibited substances were detected. The prevalence of positive samples was highest in 2012 (6.6%) and lowest in 2015 (1%). The most prevalent prohibited substances detected were anabolic steroids (32.8%) and stimulants (27.6%). The most frequently detected compounds were amphetamines (22%) and tetrahydrocannabinol (12.8%). The highest prevalence of AAFs was in bodybuilders. The prevalence of doping in Saudi Arabia seems to be higher than western countries, but this needs to be confirmed with further research.

  14. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia.


    Alzaheb, Riyadh A


    Mothers’ instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs) between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study’s infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.

  15. Motives for cosmetic procedures in Saudi women.


    Al-Natour, Sahar H


    The media-fuelled obsession with beauty in modern society has led more women to seek elective cosmetic procedures to meet the portrayed ideals of beauty in different cultures. This study gives insights into incentives and desires to undergo cosmetic procedures in a conservative society with strict religious practices where women are veiled. Questionnaire data were obtained from 509 Saudi women who responded to a survey distributed randomly to a sample of Saudi women aged 17 to 72 years. At least 1 elective cosmetic procedure was performed in 42% of the women, of whom 77.8% wore a veil. Another 33% considered having a procedure. The motives for seeking a cosmetic procedure were to improve self-esteem in 83.7%, attract a husband in 63.3%, or prevent a husband from seeking another wife in 36.2%. The decision to seek a procedure was affected by the media, with high peer influence. Motivation for elective cosmetic procedures in Saudi women is influenced by a combination of emotional and cultural factors, level of education, marital status, and religious beliefs. The veil is not an impediment for seeking such procedures. The limitation of the study was missing data analysis as some items in the questionnaire were completed inaccurately or left unanswered.

  16. Developing EFL Teaching and Learning Practices in Saudi Colleges: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liton, Hussain Ahmed


    Saudi Ministry of education is highly concerned with the pursuit of excellence in effective EFL teaching-learning in the arena of education but it experiences tardy progress especially in college level. This is a common scenario in almost every stage of learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Behind this backdrop, this paper explores the new…

  17. Mind Maps to Modify Lack of Attention among Saudi Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daghistan, Bulquees Ismail Abdul Majid


    This research study aims at investigating the impact of Mind Maps on modifying the lack of attention in Arabic language class among Saudi Kindergarten children. To achieve the goals of this study the researcher used an experimental design with a random sample from AlRae’d Kindergarten’s children in Riyadh -Saudi Arabia for the academic year…

  18. KLF1 gene and borderline hemoglobin A2 in Saudi population.


    Borgio, J Francis; AbdulAzeez, Sayed; Al-Muslami, Ahmed M; Naserullah, Zaki A; Al-Jarrash, Sana; Al-Suliman, Ahmed M; Al-Madan, Mohammed S; Al-Ali, Amein K


    Elevated HbA 2 (hemoglobin A 2 ) level is considered the most reliable hematological parameter for the detection of β-thalassemia carriers. However, some carriers are difficult to recognize because the level of HbA 2 is not in the distinctive carrier range, i.e. 4.0-6.0%; instead, some carriers have HbA 2 levels between normal and carrier levels, i.e. borderline HbA 2 (HbA 2 = 3.1-3.9%). Studies have shown that variations in the erythroid Krüppel-like factor ( KLF1 ) gene lead to borderline HbA 2 in β-thalassemia carriers from various populations. The incidence of borderline HbA 2 in Saudis is high. To confirm the influence of variations in KLF1 , HBA1 , HBA2 and HBB genes for the reduction of the level of HbA 2 in Saudi β-thalassemia carriers, we performed a direct sequence analysis of KLF1 , HBA1 , HBA2 and HBB genes from 212 healthy Saudis (88 subjects: HbA 2 < 3; 72 subjects: HbA 2 = 3.1 to 3.9; 52 subjects HbA 2 > 4.3). The presence of the borderline HbA 2 level is not specific to any type of β-thalassemia variation or β + -thalassemia variations in Saudis. Two exonic (c.304T>C and c.544T>C) and two 3′ untranslated region (3’UTR) (c.*296G>A and c.*277C>G) variations have been identified in the KLF1 gene for the first time from an Arab population. None of these four variations in KLF1 genes are significantly associated with the Saudis with borderline HbA 2 . α Globin genotype, -α 2 3.7 /α 1 α 2 , is found to be the most frequent (55.55%) among healthy Saudis with borderline HbA 2 compared with the other groups (HbA 2 < 3 = 20.45%; HbA 2 > 4.3 = 13.51%). Further studies are necessary to determine the influence of other factors on the presence of borderline HbA 2 in 41.67% of Saudis.

  19. Diversity of dengue virus-3 genotype III in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.


    Hashem, Anwar M; Sohrab, Sayed S; El-Kafrawy, Sherif A; Abd-Alla, Adly M M; El-Ela, Saeid Abo; Abujamel, Turki S; Hassan, Ahmed M; Farraj, Suha A; Othman, Noura A; Charrel, Remi N; Azhar, Esam I


    Dengue is the most important arboviral disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Dispersal of the vector and an increase in migratory flow between countries have led to large epidemics and severe clinical outcomes. Over the past 20 years, dengue epidemics have become more wide-spread and frequent. Previous studies have shown that dengue is endemic in Jeddah, Makkah and Al-Madinah in western Saudi Arabia as well as in Jazan region in the southern part of the country. The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) have been reported from western Saudi Arabia. It has been suggested that pilgrims could play a significant and unique role in DENV-1 and DENV-2 introduction into Saudi Arabia, especially in the cities of Jeddah, Makkah and Al-Madinah during Hajj and Umrah seasons. However, only limited data on DENV-3 in Saudi Arabia are available. All available DENV-3 sequences published and unpublished from Saudi Arabia and other countries were retrieved from Genbank and gene sequence repository and phylogenetically analyzed to examine the diversity of DENV-3 into the city of Jeddah. Based on the analysis of the envelope gene and non-structural 1 (E/NS1) junction sequences, we show that there were at least four independent introductions of DENV-3, all from genotype III into Jeddah. The first introduction was most probably before 1997 as Saudi virus isolates from 1997 formed a cluster without any close relationship to other globally circulating isolates, suggesting their local circulation from previous introduction events. Two introductions were most probably in 2004 with isolates closely-related to isolates from Africa and India (Asia), in addition to another introduction in 2014 with isolates clustering with those from Singapore (Asia). Our data shows that only genotype III isolates of DENV-3 are circulating in Jeddah and highlights the potential role of pilgrims in DENV-3 importation into western Saudi Arabia and subsequent exportation to their home countries during Hajj

  20. Access and utilisation of primary health care services comparing urban and rural areas of Riyadh Providence, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


    Alfaqeeh, Ghadah; Cook, Erica J; Randhawa, Gurch; Ali, Nasreen


    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has seen an increase in chronic diseases. International evidence suggests that early intervention is the best approach to reduce the burden of chronic disease. However, the limited research available suggests that health care access remains unequal, with rural populations having the poorest access to and utilisation of primary health care centres and, consequently, the poorest health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the factors influencing the access to and utilisation of primary health care centres in urban and rural areas of Riyadh province of the KSA. A questionnaire survey was carried out to identify the barriers and enablers to accessing PHCS in rural (n = 5) and urban (n = 5) areas of Riyadh province, selected on the classification of the population density of the governorates. An adapted version of the NHS National Survey Programme was administered that included 50 questions over 11 sections that assessed a wide range of factors related to respondent’s access and experience of the PHCS. A total of 935 responses were obtained with 52.9% (n = 495) from urban areas and the remaining 47.1% (n = 440) from rural areas of Riyadh province. This study highlights that there are high levels of satisfaction among patients among all PHCS. In relation to differences between urban and rural respondents, the findings indicated that there were significant variations in relation to: education level, monthly income, medical investigations, receiving blood tests on time, extra opening hours, distance, cleanliness and health prevention. Core barriers for rural patients related to the distance to reach PHCS, cleanliness of the PHCS, receiving health prevention and promotion services, which should serve to improve health outcomes. This study highlighted important differences in access to and utilisation of PHCS between urban and rural populations in Riyadh province in the KSA. These findings have implications for policy and

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

%d bloggers like this: