Madrid – Let’s learn about it with

capital and largest city of Spain

capital city and municipality in Community of Madrid, Spain
Madrid ( mə-DRID, spanish : [ maˈðɾið ] ) [ n. 1 ] is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has about 3.4 million [ 8 ] inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of approximately 6.7 million. It is the second-largest city in the European Union ( EU ), surpassed only by Berlin in its administrative limits, and its monocentric metropolitan sphere is the second-largest in the EU, surpassed only by Paris. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] [ 11 ] The municipality covers 604.3 km2 ( 233.3 sq mile ) geographic area. [ 12 ]

Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the central part of the iberian Peninsula. Capital city of both Spain ( about without break since 1561 ) and the surrounding autonomous community of Madrid ( since 1983 ), it is besides the political, economic and cultural kernel of the country. [ 14 ] The city is situated on an elevated plain about 300 kilometres ( 190 mi ) from the closest seaside placement. [ 15 ] Seasonal differences are large by iberian standards with hot summers and cool winters. The mayor is José Luis Martínez-Almeida from the People ‘s Party. The Madrid urban agglomeration has the second-largest GDP [ 16 ] in the European Union and its influence in politics, department of education, entertainment, environment, media, fashion, science, culture, and the arts all contribute to its condition as one of the world ‘s major global cities. [ 17 ] [ 18 ] due to its economic output, high standard of surviving, and grocery store size, Madrid is considered the major fiscal center [ 19 ] and the lead economic hub of the iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe. [ 20 ] [ 21 ] The metropolitan sphere hosts major spanish companies such as Telefónica, Iberia, BBVA and FCC. It concentrates the bulk of banking operations in the nation and it is the spanish-speaking city generating the largest sum of webpages. Madrid houses the headquarters of the UN ‘s World Tourism Organization ( UNWTO ), the Ibero-American General Secretariat ( SEGIB ), the Organization of Ibero-American States ( OEI ), and the public Interest Oversight Board ( PIOB ). It besides hosts major international regulators and promoters of the spanish lyric : the Standing Committee of the Association of spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy ( RAE ), the Instituto Cervantes and the Foundation of Emerging Spanish ( FundéuRAE ). madrid organises fairs such as FITUR, [ 23 ] ARCO, [ 24 ] SIMO TCI [ 25 ] and the Madrid Fashion Week. [ 26 ] Madrid is home to two world-famous football clubs, Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the front and spirit of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets. Its landmarks include the Plaza Mayor, the Royal Palace of Madrid ; the Royal Theatre with its regenerate 1850 Opera House ; the Buen Retiro Park, founded in 1631 ; the 19th-century National Library build ( founded in 1712 ) containing some of Spain ‘s historical archives ; many national museums, [ 27 ] and the Golden Triangle of Art, located along the Paseo del Prado and comprising three art museums : Prado Museum, the Reina Sofía Museum, a museum of modern art, and the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, which complements the holdings of the early two museums. [ 28 ] Cibeles Palace and Fountain has become one of the monument symbols of the city. [ 29 ] [ 30 ]


There are diverse theories regarding the origin of the place name “ Madrid ” ( all of them with problems when it comes to amply explain the phonetic development of the place name along history ), namely : [ 31 ]

  • A Celtic origin (Madrid < * Magetoritum; with the root “-ritu” meaning “ford”).
  • From the Arabic maǧrà (meaning “water stream”) or majrit (مجريط meaning “spring”, “fountain”).[33]
  • A Mozarabic variant of the Latin matrix, matricis (also meaning “water stream”).


The locate of contemporary Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, [ 34 ] [ 35 ] [ 36 ] and there are archaeological remains of the Celtic Carpetani village, Roman villa, [ 37 ] a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena [ 38 ] and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro. [ 39 ]

Middle Ages.

The first diachronic document about the being of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second base half of the ninth hundred, [ 40 ] Cordobese Emir Muhammad I built a fortress on a promontory near the river Manzanares, [ 41 ] as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the bound between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the christian invasions and besides as a start distributor point for Muslim offensives. After the annihilation of the Caliphate of Córdoba in the early eleventh century, Madrid was integrated in the Taifa of Toledo. In the context of the broad campaign for the conquest of the taifa of Toledo initiated in 1079, Madrid was seized in 1083 by Alfonso VI of León and Castile, who sought to use the town as an offensive outstation against the city of Toledo, in turn conquered in 1085. Following the conquest, Christians occupied the center of the city, while Muslims and Jews were displaced to the suburb. Madrid, located near Alcalá ( under Muslim control until 1118 ), remained a borderland for a while, suffering a number of razzias during the Almoravid period and its walls were destroyed in 1110. The city was confirmed as villa de realengo [es] ( linked to the Crown ) in 1123, during the predominate of Alfonso VII. The 1123 Charter of Otorgamiento established the inaugural denotative limits between Madrid and Segovia, namely the Puerto de El Berrueco and the Puerto de Lozoya. Since 1188, Madrid won the right to be a city with representation in the courts of Castile. [ citation needed ] In 1202, Alfonso VIII gave Madrid its first charter to regulate the municipal council, [ 45 ] which was expanded in 1222 by Ferdinand III. The government system of the town was changed to a regimiento of 12 regidores by Alfonso XI on 6 January 1346. Since the mid-13th hundred and up to the late fourteenth century, the concejo of Madrid vied for the control of the Real de Manzanares territory against the concejo of Segovia, a potent town north of the Sierra de Guadarrama mountain rate, characterised by its repopulating art and its husbandry-based economy, contrasted by the agrarian and less competent in repopulation township of Madrid. After the refuse of Sepúlveda, another concejo north of the batch crop, Segovia had become a major actor south of the Guadarrama mountains, expanding across the Lozoya and Manzanares rivers to the north of Madrid and along the Guadarrama river course to its west. In 1309, the Courts of Castile convened at Madrid for the first clock under Ferdinand IV, and late in 1329, 1339, 1391, 1393, 1419 and twice in 1435 .

modern Age.

During the disgust of the Comuneros, led by Juan de Padilla, Madrid joined the rebellion against Charles, Holy Roman Emperor, but after get the better of at the Battle of Villalar, Madrid was besieged and occupied by the imperial troops. The city was however granted the titles of Coronada ( Crowned ) and Imperial .
view of Madrid from the west, facing the Puerta de la Vega. Drawing by Anton van den Wyngaerde, 1562 Baths in the Manzanares in the place of Molino Quemado (detail), by c. 1634–1637) ( contingent ), by Félix Castello The total of urban inhabitants grew from 4,060 in the year 1530 to 37,500 in the year 1594. The poor population of the woo was composed of ex-soldiers, foreigners, rogues and Ruanes, dissatisfied with the miss of food and high prices. In June 1561 Phillip II set his court in Madrid, installing it in the old alcázar. [ 48 ] Thanks to this, the city of Madrid became the political center of the monarchy, being the capital of Spain except for a abruptly period between 1601 and 1606, in which the Court was relocated to Valladolid ( and the Madrid population temporarily plummeted accordingly ). Being the capital was decisive for the evolution of the city and influenced its destiny and during the rest of the predominate of Philip II, the population boomed, going up from about 18,000 in 1561 to 80,000 in 1598 .
view of Calle de Alcalá in 1750 by Antonio Joli During the early seventeenth century, although Madrid recovered from the loss of the capital status, with the return of diplomats, lords and feeder people, ampere well as an cortege of celebrated writers and artists in concert with them, extreme poverty was however rampant. [ 50 ] The century besides was a fourth dimension of flower for theater, represented in the alleged corrales de comedias. [ 51 ] The city changed hands several times during the War of the spanish succession : from the Bourbon control it passed to the allied “ Austracist ” united states army with Portuguese and English bearing that entered the city in late June 1706 [ es ], [ 52 ] only to be retaken by the Bourbon army on 4 August 1706. The Habsburg army led by the Archduke Charles entered the city for a second clock [ e ] in September 1710, [ 54 ] leaving the city less than three months after. Philip V entered the capital on 3 December 1710. Seeking to take advantage of the Madrid ‘s location at the geographic center of Spain, the eighteenth century saw a sustain campaign to create a radial system of communications and transports for the country through public investments. [ 56 ] Philip V built the Royal Palace, the Royal Tapestry Factory and the chief Royal Academies. [ 57 ] The reign of Charles III, who came to be known as “ the best mayor of Madrid ”, saw an attempt to turn the city into a true capital, with the construction of sewers, street light up, cemeteries outside the city and a number of monuments and cultural institutions. The reforms enacted by his sicilian minister were however opposed in 1766 by the populace in the alleged Esquilache Riots, a disgust demanding to repeal a invest decree banning the practice of traditional hats and long cloaks aiming to curb crime in the city. [ 58 ]
In the context of the Peninsular War, the site in French-occupied Madrid after March 1808 was becoming more and more tense. On 2 May, a crowd began to gather near the Royal Palace protesting against the french try to evict the remaining members of the Bourbon royal kin to Bayonne, prompting up an get up against the french Imperial troops that lasted hours and spread throughout the city, including a celebrated last stand at the Monteleón barracks. subsequent repression was brutal, with many insurgent Spaniards being summarily executed. [ 59 ] The resurrect led to a declaration of war calling all the Spaniards to fights against the french invaders .

capital of the Liberal State.

Ensanche de Madrid 1861 map of the The city was invaded on 24 May 1823 by a french army—the alleged Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis —called to intervene to restore the absolutism of Ferdinand that the latter had been deprived from during the 1820–1823 trienio liberal. [ 60 ] Unlike early european capitals, during the first half of the nineteenth century the only obtrusive bourgeois elements in Madrid ( that experienced a delay in its industrial development up to that degree ) were merchants. The University of Alcalá de Henares was relocated to Madrid in 1836, becoming the Central University. [ 62 ] The economy of the city further modernized during the second one-half of the nineteenth hundred, consolidating its status as a avail and fiscal center. New industries were by and large focused in book print, construction and low-tech sectors. The insertion of railroad track ecstasy greatly helped Madrid ‘s economic art, and led to changes in consumption patterns ( such as the substitution of salted pisces for fresh fish from the spanish coasts ) american samoa well as foster strengthening the city ‘s function as a logistics lymph node in the country ‘s distribution network. Electric lightning in the streets was introduced in the 1890s. During the inaugural third of the twentieth hundred the population about doubled, reaching more than 850,000 inhabitants. New suburbs such as Las Ventas, Tetuán and El Carmen became the homes of the inflow of workers, while Ensanche became a middle-class neighborhood of Madrid. [ 65 ]

second Republic and Civil War.

The spanish constitution of 1931 was the first to legislate the location of the country ‘s capital, setting it explicitly in Madrid. During the 1930s, Madrid enjoyed “ great energy ” ; it was demographically young, becoming urbanize and the center of new political movements. [ 66 ] During this time, major construction projects were undertake, including the northern extension of the Paseo de la Castellana, one of Madrid ‘s major thoroughfares. The tertiary sector, including bank, policy and telephone services, grew greatly. illiteracy rates were down to below 20 %, and the city ‘s cultural life grew notably during the alleged Silver Age of spanish Culture ; the sales of newspapers besides increased. conversely, the proclamation of the Republic created a hard housing dearth. Slums and sordidness grew due to high population growth and the inflow of the poor people to the city. structure of low-cost housing failed to keep pace and increase political instability discouraged economic investing in caparison in the years immediately prior to the Civil War. Anti-clericalism and Catholicism lived side by side in Madrid ; the burn of convents initiated after riots in the city in May 1931 worsened the political environment. however, the 1934 rebellion largely failed in the city .
Madrid was one of the most heavy involve cities in the spanish Civil War ( 1936–1939 ). It was a stronghold of the republican cabal from July 1936 and became an international symbol of anti-fascist contend during the conflict. [ 73 ] The city suffered aeriform fail, and in November 1936, its western suburbs were the scene of an all-out conflict. [ 74 ] The city fell to the Francoists in March 1939 .

Francoist dictatorship.

Woman in Moratalaz by 1974 A staple of post-war Madrid ( Madrid de la posguerra ) was the widespread use of ration coupons. kernel and fish consumption was barely, resulting in high mortality due to malnutrition. Due to its history as a leftist stronghold, the rightist victors toyed with the possibility of moving the capital elsewhere ( most notably to Seville ), such plans were never implemented. The Franco government rather emphasized the city ‘s history as the capital of past imperial Spain. The intense demographic growth experienced by the city via mass immigration from the rural areas of the nation led to the construction of plenty of house in the peripheral areas of the city to absorb the new population ( reinforcing the processes of social polarization of the city ), initially comprising deficient house ( with angstrom many as 50,000 shacks scattered around the city by 1956 ). A transitional plan intended to temporarily replace the hovel towns were the poblados de absorción, introduced since the mid-1950s in locations such as Canillas, San Fermín, Caño Roto, Villaverde, Pan Bendito [ e ], Zofío and Fuencarral, aiming to work as a kind of “ high-end ” shacks ( with the destinataries participating in the construction of their own house ) but under the auspices of a across-the-board coordinated urban planning. Madrid grew through the annexation of neighboring municipalities, achieving the present extent of 607 km2 ( 234.36 sq nautical mile ). The south of Madrid became heavily industrialized, and there was meaning immigration from rural areas of Spain. Madrid ‘s newly built north-western districts became the home of a newly enriched middle class that appeared as consequence of the 1960s spanish economic smash, while the south-eastern periphery became a boastfully propertyless area, which formed the nucleotide for active cultural and political movements. [ 74 ]

late history.

After the fall of the Francoist government, the new 1978 constitution confirmed Madrid as the capital of Spain. The 1979 municipal election brought Madrid ‘s first democratically elected mayor since the Second Republic to might. Madrid was the scene of some of the most important events of the time, such as the mass demonstrations of hold for democracy after the fail coup d’etat, 23-F, on 23 February 1981. The first democratic mayors belonged to the centre-left PSOE ( Enrique Tierno Galván, Juan Barranco Gallardo ). Since the late 1970s and through the 1980s Madrid became the kernel of the cultural apparent motion known as la Movida. conversely, just like in the rest of the nation, a heroin crisis took a price in the poor neighborhoods of Madrid in the 1980s. [ 81 ]
Benefiting from increasing prosperity in the 1980s and 1990s, the capital city of Spain consolidated its placement as an significant economic, cultural, industrial, educational, and technological center on the european celibate. [ 74 ] During the mandate as Mayor of José María Álvarez del Manzano construction of traffic tunnels below the city proliferated. [ 82 ] The follow administrations, besides conservative, led by Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón and Ana Botella launched three abortive bids for the 2012, 2016 and 2020 Summer Olympics. [ 83 ] By 2005, Madrid was the conduct european address for migrants from developing countries, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the largest employer of non-European work force in Spain. Madrid was a centre of the anti-austerity protests that erupted in Spain in 2011. As consequence of the spillover of the 2008 fiscal and mortgage crisis, Madrid has been affected by the increasing number of second-hand homes held by banks and sign of the zodiac evictions. [ 85 ] The mandate of leftist Mayor Manuela Carmena ( 2015–2019 ) delivered the renaturalization of the naturally of the Manzanares across the city. Since the late 2010s, the challenges the city faces include the increasingly unaffordable rental prices ( frequently in parallel with the gentrification and the spike of tourist apartments in the city center ) and the profusion of betting shops in wage-earning areas, leading to an “ epidemic ” of gambling among young people. [ 86 ] [ 87 ]



Madrid as seen by the Sentinel-2 satellite in October 2020 Madrid lies in the kernel of the iberian peninsula on the southerly Meseta Central, 60 kilometer south of the Guadarrama mountain roll and straddling the Jarama and Manzanares river sub-drainage basins, in the wide-eyed Tagus River catchment area. There is a considerable deviation in elevation within the city proper ranging from the 700 molarity ( 2,297 foot ) around Plaza de Castilla in the north of city to the 570 thousand ( 1,870 foot ) around La China effluent treatment implant on the Manzanares ‘ riverbanks, near the latter ‘s confluence with the Fuente Castellana thalweg in the south of the city. [ 88 ] The Monte de El Pardo ( a protected forested area covering over a quarter of the municipality ) reaches its acme altitude ( 843 m ( 2,766 foot ) ) on its margin, in the slopes surrounding El Pardo reservoir [ es ] located at the north-western end of the municipality, in the Fuencarral-El Pardo zone. [ 89 ] The oldest urban core is located on the hills next to the forget depository financial institution of the Manzanares River. [ 90 ] The city grew to the east, reaching the Fuente Castellana Creek [ vitamin e ] ( now the Paseo de la Castellana ), and far east reaching the Abroñigal Creek [ e ] ( now the M-30 ). [ 90 ] The city besides grew through the annexation of neighbouring urban settlements, [ 90 ] including those to the South West on the right bank of the Manzanares .


Madrid has a Mediterranean climate ( Köppen Csa ) [ 91 ] with continental influences in the western half of the city transition to a semi-arid climate ( BSk ) in the eastern half. [ 92 ] Winters are cool due to its altitude, which is approximately 667 megabyte ( 2,188 foot ) above ocean degree and distance from the moderating impression of the ocean. While largely cheery, rain, sporadic snowfalls and patronize frosts can occur between December and February with cool temperatures particularly during the night and mornings as cold winds blow into the city from surrounding mountains. Summers are hot and cheery, in the warmest calendar month, July, average temperatures during the day compass from 32 to 34 °C ( 90 to 93 °F ) depending on location, with maxima normally climbing over 35 °C ( 95 °F ) and occasionally up to 40 °C during the frequent heating system waves. Due to Madrid ‘s altitude and dry climate, humidity is low and diurnal ranges are frequently significant, particularly on cheery winter days when the temperature rises in the good afternoon before quickly plummeting after nightfall. Madrid is among the sunniest capital cities in Europe. The highest read temperature was on 14 August 2021, with 40.7 °C ( 105.3 °F ) and the lowest record temperature was on 16 January 1945 with −10.1 °C ( 13.8 °F ) in Madrid. [ 93 ] While on the airport, in the eastern side of the city, the highest recorded temperature was on 24 July 1995, at 42.2 °C ( 108.0 °F ), and the lowest commemorate temperature was on 16 January 1945 at −15.3 °C ( 4.5 °F ). [ 94 ] From 7 January to 9 January 2021, Madrid received the most snow in its record history since 1972 ; Spain ‘s meteorologic means AEMET reported between 50 and 60 centimetres ( 20 and 24 in ) of accumulated bamboozle in its weather stations within the city. [ 95 ] haste is typically concentrated in the fall and jump, and, together with Athens, which has alike annual precipitation, Madrid is the driest das kapital in Europe. It is peculiarly sparse during the summer, taking the form of about two showers and/or thunderstorms during the temper .

Climate data for Madrid (667 m), Buen Retiro Park in the city centre (1981–2010), Extremes (1920–)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.9
Average high °C (°F) 9.8
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.3
Average low °C (°F) 2.7
Record low °C (°F) −10.1
Average precipitation mm (inches) 33
Average precipitation days ( ≥ 1 millimeter ) 6 5 4 7 7 3 2 2 3 7 7 7 59
Mean monthly sunshine hours 149 158 211 230 268 315 355 332 259 199 144 124 2,744
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[96][97][98][99]

Water provision.

Viaje de Amaniel In the seventeenth hundred, the alleged “ viajes de agua “ ( a kind of water channels or qanat ) were used to provide water system to the city. Some of the most crucial ones were the Viaje de Amaniel [ e ] ( 1610–1621, sponsored by the Crown ), the Viaje de Fuente Castellana [ e ] ( 1613–1620 ) and Abroñigal Alto [ es ] / Abroñigal Bajo [ e ] ( 1617–1630 ), sponsored by the City Council. They were the main infrastructure for the supply of water until the arrival of the Canal de Isabel II in the mid-19th century. [ 100 ] Madrid derives about 73.5 percentage of its water supply from dams and reservoirs built on the Lozoya River, such as the El Atazar Dam. [ 101 ] This water supply is managed by the Canal de Isabel II, a public entity created in 1851. It is responsible for the supply, depurating lay waste to water and the conservation of all the natural water resources of the Madrid area .


The population of Madrid has overall increased since the city became the capital of Spain in the mid-16th century, and has stabilised at approximately 3 million since the 1970s. From 1970 until the mid-1990s, the population dropped. This phenomenon, which besides affected early european cities, was caused in separate by the growth of satellite suburbs at the expense of the downtown region within the city proper. The demographic boom accelerated in the belated 1990s and early inaugural ten of the twenty-first hundred ascribable to immigration in latitude with a scend in spanish economic growth. The wide Madrid area is the EU region with the highest average life anticipation at birth. The median life anticipation was 82.2 years for males and 87.8 for females in 2016. [ 102 ] As the capital city of Spain, the city has attracted many immigrants from around the populace, with most of the immigrants coming from latin american english countries. [ 103 ] In 2020, around 76 % of the read population was Spain-born, [ 104 ] while, regarding the foreign-born population ( 24 % ), [ 104 ] the bulk of it relates to the Americas ( around 16 % of the sum population ), and a lesser fraction of the population is born in other european, asian and african countries. As of 2019 the highest rising national group of immigrants was Venezuelans. [ 105 ] Regarding religious beliefs, according to a 2019 Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas ( CIS ) survey with a sample distribution size of 469 respondents, 20.7 % of respondents in Madrid identify themselves as practising Catholics, 45.8 % as non-practising Catholics, 3.8 % as believers of another religion, 11.1 % as agnostics, 3.6 % as indifferent towards religion, and 12.8 % as atheists. The remaining 2.1 % did not state their religious beliefs. [ 106 ] The Madrid metropolitan area comprises Madrid and the surrounding municipalities. According to Eurostat, the “ metropolitan region ” of Madrid has a population of slenderly more than 6.271 million people [ 107 ] covering an area of 4,609.7 square kilometres ( 1,780 sq nautical mile ). It is the largest in Spain and the moment largest in the European Union. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] [ 11 ]


local government and administration.

Façade of the city mansion A plenary session of the city council The City Council ( Ayuntamiento de Madrid ) is the body creditworthy for the government and presidency of the municipality. It is formed by the Plenary ( Pleno ), the Mayor ( alcalde ) and the Government Board ( Junta de Gobierno de la Ciudad de Madrid ). The Plenary of the Ayuntamiento is the body of political representation of the citizens in the municipal politics. Its 57 members are elected for a 4-year mandate. Some of its attributions are : fiscal matters, the election and deposition of the mayor, the approval and modification of decrees and regulations, the approval of budgets, the agreements related to the limits and change of the municipal term, the services management, the engagement in supramunicipal organisations, etc. [ 108 ] The mayor, the supreme representative of the city, presides over the Ayuntamiento. He is charged with giving impulse to the municipal policies, managing the action of the rest of bodies and directing the executive municipal administration. [ 109 ] He is responsible to the Pleno. He is besides entitled to preside over the meetings of the Pleno, although this responsibility can be delegated to another municipal council member. José Luis Martínez-Almeida, a member of the People ‘s Party, serves as Mayor since 2019. The Government Board consists of the mayor, deputy mayors and a count of delegates assuming the portfolios for the different government areas. All those positions are held by municipal councillors. [ 110 ] Since 2007, the Cybele Palace ( or Palace of Communications ) serves as City Hall .

administrative subdivisions.

Madrid is administratively divided into 21 districts, which are further subdivided into 131 neighbourhoods ( barrios ) :

regional capital.

Madrid is the capital of the Community of Madrid. The region has its own legislature and enjoys a wide-eyed compass of competencies in areas such as social spend, healthcare, and education. The seat of the regional parliament, the Assembly of Madrid, is located at the zone of Puente de Vallecas. The presidency of the regional politics is headquartered at the Royal House of the Post Office at the very center of the city, the Puerta del Sol .

capital of Spain.

Madrid is the das kapital of Spain. The King of Spain, the nation ‘s head of country, has his official residency in the Zarzuela Palace. As the seat of the Government of Spain, Madrid besides houses the official residence of the President of the Government ( Prime Minister ) and regular meet space of the Council of Ministers, the Moncloa Palace, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the headquarters of the ministerial departments. Both the residences of the point of country and politics are located at the northwest of the city. additionally, the seats of the Lower and Upper Chambers of the spanish Parliament, the Cortes Generales ( respectively, the Palacio de las Cortes and the Palacio del Senado ), besides lie on Madrid .

jurisprudence enforcement.

municipal police agents from the 2018 promotion The Madrid Municipal Police ( Policía Municipal de Madrid ) is the local police enforcement body, dependent on the Ayuntamiento. As of 2018, it had a work force of 6,190 civil servants. [ 112 ] The headquarters of both the Directorate-General of the Police and the Directorate-General of the Civil Guard are located in Madrid. The headquarter of the Higher Office of Police of Madrid ( Jefatura Superior de Policía de Madrid ), the peripheral outgrowth of the National Police Corps with jurisdiction over the region besides lies on Madrid .



little medieval architecture is preserved in Madrid, largely in the Almendra Central, including the San Nicolás and San Pedro elevated railway Viejo church towers, the church of San Jerónimo el Real, and the Bishop ‘s Chapel. Nor has Madrid retained a lot Renaissance architecture, other than the Bridge of Segovia and the Convent of Las Descalzas Reales .
Philip II moved his motor hotel to Madrid in 1561 and transformed the town into a das kapital city. During the early on Hapsburg period, the spell of european influences took place, underpinned by the monicker of Austrian style. The austrian style featured not only austrian influences but besides italian and Dutch ( adenine well as spanish ), reflecting on the international eminence of the Habsburgs. [ 113 ] During the second base half of the 16th-century the use of pointy slate spires in order to top structures such as church towers was imported to Spain from Central Europe. [ 114 ] Slate spires and roofs consequently became a basic of the Madrilenian architecture at the time. [ 115 ] Stand out architecture in the city dating back to the early 17th-century includes several buildings and structures ( most of them attributed to Juan Gómez de Mora ) such as the Palace of the Duke of Uceda ( 1610 ), the Monastery of La Encarnación ( 1611–1616 ) ; the Plaza Mayor ( 1617–1619 ) or the Cárcel de Corte ( 1629–1641 ), presently known as the Santa Cruz Palace. The hundred besides saw the construction of the former City Hall, the Casa de la Villa. The Imperial College church model dome was imitated in all of Spain. Pedro de Ribera introduced Churrigueresque architecture to Madrid ; the Cuartel del Conde-Duque, the church service of Montserrat, and the Bridge of Toledo are among the best examples .
The reign of the Bourbons during the eighteenth century marked a newly era in the city. Philip V tried to complete King Philip II ‘s vision of urbanization of Madrid. Philip V built a palace in channel with french taste, angstrom well as other buildings such as St. Michael ‘s Basilica and the Church of Santa Bárbara. King Charles III beautified the city and endeavoured to convert Madrid into one of the capital european capitals. He pushed ahead the construction of the Prado Museum ( originally intended as a Natural Science Museum ), the Puerta de Alcalá, the Royal Observatory, the Basilica of San Francisco elevated railway Grande, the Casa de Correos in Puerta del Sol, the Real Casa de la Aduana, and the General Hospital ( which immediately houses the Reina Sofia Museum and Royal Conservatory of Music ). The Paseo del Prado, surrounded by gardens and decorated with neoclassic statues, is an model of urban plan. The Duke of Berwick ordered the construction of the Liria Palace. During the early nineteenth century, the Peninsular War, the loss of viceroyalties in the Americas, and continuing coups limited the city ‘s architectural development ( Royal Theatre, the National Library of Spain, the Palace of the Senate, and the Congress ). The Segovia Viaduct linked the Royal Alcázar to the southerly partially of town .
The number of key figures of madrilenian architecture during the 19th and twentieth centuries includes authors such as Narciso Pascual y Colomer, Francisco Jareño y Alarcón, Francisco de Cubas, Juan Bautista Lázaro de Diego, Ricardo Velázquez Bosco, Antonio Palacios, Secundino Zuazo, Luis Gutiérrez Soto, Luis Moya Blanco [ vitamin e ] and Alejandro de la Sota. [ 118 ] From the mid-19th hundred until the Civil War, Madrid modernised and built new neighbourhoods and monuments. The expansion of Madrid developed under the Plan Castro, resulting in the neighbourhoods of Salamanca, Argüelles, and Chamberí. Arturo Soria conceived the analogue city and built the first few kilometres of the road that bears his name, which embodies the idea. The Gran Vía was built using different styles that evolved over time : french style, eclectic, art deco, and expressionist. Antonio Palacios built a series of buildings inspired by the viennese Secession, such as the Palace of Communication, the Círculo de Bellas Artes, and the Río de La Plata Bank ( now Instituto Cervantes ). other luminary buildings include the Bank of Spain, the neo-Gothic Almudena Cathedral, Atocha Station, and the Catalan art-nouveau Palace of Longoria. Las Ventas Bullring was built, as the market of San Miguel ( Cast-Iron expressive style ) .
Following the Francoist coup d’etat that ensued the end of spanish Civil war, architecture experienced an involution, discarding rationalism and, eclecticism however, going back to an overall preferably “ outmoded ” architectural language, with the aim of turning Madrid into a capital worthy of the “ immortal Spain ”. [ 119 ] Iconic examples of this period include the Ministry of the Air ( a casing of herrerian revival ) and the Edificio España ( presented as the tallest building in Europe when it was inaugurated in 1953 ). [ 120 ] [ 119 ] Many of these buildings distinctly combine the function of brick and pit in the façades. [ 119 ] The Casa Sindical marked a break indicate as it was the beginning to reassume rationalism, although that relinking to modernity was undertaken through the caricature of the italian Fascist architecture. [ 119 ] With the advent of spanish economic exploitation, skyscrapers, such as Torre Picasso, Torres Blancas and Torre BBVA, and the Gate of Europe, appeared in the late twentieth century in the city. During the decade of the 2000s, the four tallest skyscrapers in Spain were built and together form the Cuatro Torres Business Area. [ 121 ] Terminal 4 at Madrid-Barajas Airport was inaugurated in 2006 and won several architectural awards. terminal 4 is one of the world ‘s largest end areas [ 122 ] and features glass panes and domes in the roof, which allow natural alight to pass through .

Parks and forests.

Main parks in the municipalityRetiro Park The Manzanares flowing through the Monte de El Pardo Madrid is the european city with the highest act of trees and green come on per inhabitant and it has the second highest number of align trees in the earth, with 248,000 units, only exceeded by Tokyo. Madrid ‘s citizens have access to a k area within a 15-minute walk. Since 1997, green areas have increased by 16 %. At present, 8.2 % of Madrid ‘s grounds are fleeceable areas, meaning that there are 16 m2 ( 172 sq foot ) of fleeceable area per inhabitant, far exceeding the 10 m2 ( 108 sq foot ) per inhabitant recommended by the World Health Organization. A great bulge of the most important parks in Madrid are related to areas in the first place belonging to the royal assets ( including El Pardo, Soto de Viñuelas, Casa de Campo, El Buen Retiro, lanthanum Florida and the Príncipe Pío hill, and the Queen ‘s Casino ). The early main source for the “ green ” areas are the bienes de propios [es] owned by the municipality ( including the Dehesa de la Villa, the Dehesa de Arganzuela or Viveros ). El Retiro is the most visit localization of the city. [ 125 ] Having an area bigger than 1.4 km2 ( 0.5 sq nautical mile ) ( 350 acres ), it is the largest park within the Almendra Central, the inner part of the city enclosed by the M-30. Created during the predominate of Philip IV ( seventeenth hundred ), it was handed over to the municipality in 1868, after the glorious Revolution. [ 127 ] It lies future to the Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid. Located northwest of the city center, the Parque del Oeste ( “ Park of the West ” ) comprises share of the area of the former imperial possession of the “ real Florida ”, and it features a slope as the height decreases toss off to the Manzanares. [ 128 ] Its southerly extension includes the Temple of Debod, a transport ancient egyptian synagogue. [ 129 ] early urban parks are the Parque de El Capricho, the Parque Juan Carlos I ( both in northeastern Madrid ), Madrid Río, the Enrique Tierno Galván Park [ east ], the San Isidro Park [ east ] adenine well as gardens such as the Campo del Moro ( opened to the populace in 1978 ) and the Sabatini Gardens ( opened to the populace in 1931 ) near the Royal Palace. far west, across the Manzanares, lies the Casa de Campo, a large afforest area with more than 1700 hectares ( 6.6 sq michigan ) where the Madrid Zoo, and the Parque de Atracciones de Madrid entertainment park are located. It was ceded to the municipality following the announcement of the Second Spanish Republic in 1931. [ 130 ] The Monte de El Pardo is the largest forested sphere in the municipality. A holm oak forest covering a surface over 16,000 hectares, it is considered the best preserve mediterranean forest in the Community of Madrid and one of the best preserved in Europe. [ 131 ] already mentioned in the Alfonso XI ‘s Libro de la montería [es] from the mid 14th-century, its condition as hunting location linked to the spanish monarchy assistant to preserve the environmental value. [ 131 ] During the reign of Ferdinand VII the government of hunting prohibition for the Monte de El Pardo became one of entire place and the expropriation of all possessions within its bounds was enforced, with awful consequences for the madrilenians at the clock time. It is designated as special Protection Area for bird-life and it is besides part of the Regional Park of the High Basin of the Manzanares. early big forested areas include the Soto de Viñuelas, the Dehesa de Valdelatas [ e ] and the Dehesa de la Villa [ east ]. As of 2015, the most late big park in the municipality is the Valdebebas Park. Covering a total area of 4.7 km2 ( 1.8 sq nautical mile ), it is sub-divided in a 3.4 km2 ( 1.3 sq secret intelligence service ) forest park ( the Parque forestal de Valdebebas-Felipe VI [ es ] ), a 0.8 km2 ( 0.31 sq nautical mile ) periurban ballpark american samoa well as municipal garden centres and compost plants. [ 133 ]


After it became the capital of Spain in the sixteenth century, Madrid was more a center of consumption than of production or trade wind. Economic activity was largely devoted to supplying the city ‘s own quickly growing population, including the royal family and home government, and to such trades as banking and print. A large industrial sector did not develop until the twentieth century, but thereafter industry greatly expanded and diversified, making Madrid the second industrial city in Spain. however, the economy of the city is now becoming more and more dominated by the service sector. A major european fiscal center field, its stock marketplace is the third largest malcolm stock marketplace in Europe featuring both the IBEX 35 index and the attach Latibex [ es ] lineage marketplace ( with the moment most important index for latin american companies ). Madrid is the fifth most authoritative leading Centre of Commerce in Europe ( after London, Paris, Frankfurt and Amsterdam ) and ranks 11th in the world. [ 20 ] It is the leading spanish-speaking city in terms of web page creation .

economic history.

As the capital city of the spanish empire from 1561, Madrid ‘s population grew quickly. Administration, bank, and minor manufacture centred on the royal court were among the chief activities, but the city was more a locus of consumption than production or deal, geographically isolated as it was before the coming of the railways. The Bank of Spain is one of the oldest european central banks. primitively named as the Bank of San Carlos as it was founded in 1782, it was by and by renamed to Bank of San Fernando in 1829 and ultimately became the Bank of Spain in 1856. [ 134 ] Its headquarters are located at the calle de Alcalá. The Madrid Stock Exchange was inaugurated on 20 October 1831. [ 135 ] Its benchmark stock commercialize index is the IBEX 35. diligence started to develop on a big plate only in the twentieth hundred, [ 136 ] but then grew quickly, particularly during the “ spanish miracle “ period around the 1960s. The economy of the city was then centred on manufacturing industries such as those related to centrifugal vehicles, aircraft, chemicals, electronic devices, pharmaceuticals, processed food, print materials, and leather goods. [ 137 ] Since the restoration of democracy in the belated 1970s, the city has continued to expand. Its economy is now among the most dynamic and divers in the European Union. [ 138 ]

contemporary economy.

Madrid concentrates activities directly connected with exponent ( central and regional government, headquarters of spanish companies, regional HQ of multinationals, fiscal institutions ) and with cognition and technological invention ( inquiry centres and universities ). It is one of Europe ‘s largest fiscal centres, and the largest in Spain. [ 139 ] The city has 17 universities and over 30 inquiry centres. [ 139 ] : 52 It is the second base city in the EU by population, and the third by megascopic internal product. [ 139 ] : 69 Leading employers include Telefónica, Iberia, Prosegur, BBVA, Urbaser, Dragados, and FCC. [ 139 ] : 569 The Community of Madrid, the region comprising the city and the rest of municipalities of the province, had a GDP of € 220B in 2017, equating to a GDP per caput of €33,800. [ 140 ] In 2011 the city itself had a GDP per head 74 % above the national modal and 70 % above that of the 27 European Union member states, although 11 % behind the average of the clear 10 cities of the EU. [ 139 ] : 237–239 Although house just over 50 % of the region ‘s ‘s population, the city generates 65.9 % of its GDP. [ 139 ] : 51 Following the recession commencing 2007/8, recovery was under way by 2014, with bode growth rates for the city of 1.4 % in 2014, 2.7 % in 2015 and 2.8 % in 2016. [ 141 ] : 10 The economy of Madrid has become based increasingly on the service sector. In 2011 services accounted for 85.9 % of rate added, while industry contributed 7.9 % and construction 6.1 %. [ 139 ] : 51 Nevertheless, Madrid continues to hold the position of Spain ‘s second industrial centre after Barcelona, specialising particularly in high-technology production. Following the receding, services and industry were forecast to return to growth in 2014, and construction in 2015. [ 141 ] : 32 [ needs update ]

Standard of life.

Mean household income and spending are 12 % above the spanish average. [ 139 ] : 537, 553 The proportion classified as “ at risk of poverty ” in 2010 was 15.6 %, improving from 13.0 % in 2006 but less than the average for Spain of 21.8 %. The proportion classified as affluent was 43.3 %, much higher than Spain overall ( 28.6 % ). [ 139 ] : 540–3 pulmonary tuberculosis by Madrid residents has been affected by subcontract losses and by austerity measures, including a lift in sales tax from 8 % to 21 % in 2012. [ 142 ] Although residential property prices have fallen by 39 % since 2007, the average price of dwelling space was €2,375.6 per sq. m. in early 2014, [ 141 ] : 70 and is shown as second only to London in a list of 22 european cities. [ 143 ]


participation in the parturiency storm was 1,638,200 in 2011, or 79.0 %. The use work force comprised 49 % women in 2011 ( Spain, 45 % ). [ 139 ] : 98 41 % of economically active people are university graduates, against 24 % for Spain as a wholly. [ 139 ] : 103 In 2011, the unemployment rate was 15.8 %, remaining lower than in Spain as a solid. Among those aged 16–24, the unemployment rate was 39.6 %. [ 139 ] : 97, 100 unemployment reached a point of 19.1 % in 2013, [ 141 ] : 17 but with the starting signal of an economic recovery in 2014, employment started to increase. [ 144 ] Employment continues to shift farther towards the avail sector, with 86 % of all jobs in this sector by 2011, against 74 % in all of Spain. [ 139 ] : 117 In the second quarter of 2018 the unemployment rate was 10.06 %. [ 145 ]


The share of services in the city ‘s economy is 86 %. Services for occupation, transportation & communications, property, and fiscal together account for 52 % of the sum respect added. [ 139 ] : 51 The types of services that are now expanding are chiefly those that help drift of das kapital, information, goods and persons, and “ advanced business services ” such as research and development ( R & D ), information technology, and technical accountancy. [ 139 ] : 242–3 Madrid and the wider area ‘s authorities have put a celebrated attempt in the development of logistics infrastructure. Within the city proper, some of the standout centres include Mercamadrid, the Madrid-Abroñigal [ es ] logistics center, the Villaverde ‘s Logistics Centre and the Vicálvaro ‘s Logistics Centre to name a few. [ 146 ] Banks based in Madrid carry out 72 % of the bank activeness in Spain. [ 139 ] : 474 The spanish cardinal bank, Bank of Spain, has existed in Madrid since 1782. Stocks & shares, bond markets, indemnity, and pension funds are early significant forms of fiscal institution in the city .
Fitur fair in Ifema Madrid is an significant center for trade fairs, many of them coordinated by IFEMA, the Trade Fair Institution of Madrid. [ 139 ] : 351–2 The populace sector employs 18.1 % of all employees. [ 139 ] : 630 Madrid attracts about 8M tourists per annum from other parts of Spain and from all over the populace, exceeding even Barcelona. [ 139 ] : 81 [ 139 ] : 362, 374 [ 141 ] : 44 outgo by tourists in Madrid was estimated ( 2011 ) at €9,546.5M, or 7.7 % of the city ‘s GDP. [ 139 ] : 375 The construction of tape drive infrastructure has been critical to maintain the economic position of Madrid. Travel to work and other local anesthetic journeys use a high-capacity metropolitan road network and a well-used public transmit system. [ 139 ] : 62–4 In terms of longer-distance transport, Madrid is the central node of the organization of autovías and of the high-speed rail net ( AVE ), which has brought major cities such as Seville and Barcelona within 2.5 hours travel time. [ 139 ] : 72–75 besides authoritative to the city ‘s economy is Madrid-Barajas Airport, the one-fourth largest airport in Europe. [ 139 ] : 76–78 Madrid ‘s central localization makes it a major logistic base. [ 139 ] : 79–80


As an industrial center Madrid retains its advantages in infrastructure, as a transportation hub, and as the localization of headquarters of many companies. Industries based on advanced engineering are acquiring a lot more importance here than in the perch of Spain. [ 139 ] : 271 Industry contributed 7.5 % to Madrid ‘s value-added in 2010. [ 139 ] : 265 however, industry has slowly declined within the city boundaries as more diligence has moved outward to the periphery. Industrial Gross Value Added grew by 4.3 % in the period 2003–2005, but decreased by 10 % during 2008–2010. [ 139 ] : 271, 274 The leading industries were : newspaper, printing & publish, 28.8 % ; energy & mine, 19.7 % ; vehicles & transport equipment, 12.9 % ; electric and electronic, 10.3 % ; foodstuffs, 9.6 % ; dress, footwear & textiles, 8.3 % ; chemical, 7.9 % ; industrial machinery, 7.3 %. [ 139 ] : 266 The PSA Peugeot Citroën plant is located in Villaverde zone .



Building works of Caleido in August 2018 The construction sector, contributing 6.5 % to the city ‘s economy in 2010, [ 139 ] : 265 was a growing sector before the recession, aided by a large transport and infrastructure program. More recently the construction sector has fallen away and earned 8 % less in 2009 than it had been in 2000. [ 139 ] : 242–3 The decrease was particularly marked in the residential sector, where prices dropped by 25 % –27 % from 2007 to 2012/13 [ 139 ] : 202, 212 and the numeral of sales fell by 57 %. [ 139 ] : 216


Madrid de los Austrias. It is the part of Madrid with the most buildings of the Habsburg-period.. It is the separate of Madrid with the most buildings of the Habsburg-period. Madrid is the induct of the World Tourism Organization ( UNWTO ) and the International Tourism Fair [ e ] ( FITUR ). In 2018, the city received 10.21 million tourists ( 53.3 % of them external tourists ). [ 147 ] p. 9 The biggest partake of external tourists come from the United States, followed by Italy, France, United Kingdom and Germany. [ 147 ] p. 10 As of 2018, the city has 793 hotels, 85,418 hotel places and 43,816 hotel rooms. [ 147 ] p. 18 It besides had, as of 2018, an estimated 20,217 tourist apartments. [ 147 ] p. 20 The most visit museum was the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, with 3.8 million visitors in the summarize of its three seats in 2018. conversely, the Prado Museum had 2.8 million visitors and the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum 906,815 visitors. [ 147 ] p. 32 By the late 2010s, the gentrification and the spike of tourist apartments in the city center led to an increase in rental prices, pushing residents out of the city center. [ 87 ] Most of the tourist apartments in Madrid ( 50–54 % ) are located in the Centro District. [ 148 ] In the Sol vicinity ( contribution of the latter zone ), 3 out of 10 homes are dedicated to tourist apartments, [ 148 ] and 2 out of 10 are listed in AirBnB. [ 87 ] In April 2019 the plenary of the ayuntamiento passed a design intending to regulate this practice, seeking to greatly limit the count of tourist apartments. The prescriptive would enforce a requirement for freelancer access to those apartments in and out of the street. [ 149 ] however, after the transfer of government in June 2019, the new municipal administration plans to revert the regulation. [ 150 ]

International rankings.

A recent report placed Madrid 7th among 36 cities as an attractive root for business. [ 151 ] It was placed third gear in terms of handiness of function space, and fifth for easy of access to markets, handiness of qualify staff, mobility within the city, and quality of life. Its less favorable characteristics were seen as contamination, languages spoken, and political environment. Another rate of european cities placed Madrid 5th among 25 cities ( behind Berlin, London, Paris and Frankfurt ), being rated favorably on economic factors and the labor market deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as transport and communication. [ 152 ]

Media and entertainment.

Madrid is an important film and television production hub, whose message is distributed throughout the spanish-speaking world and afield. Madrid is frequently seen as the entry point into the european media commercialize for latin american media companies, and likewise the introduction compass point into the latin american markets for european companies. [ 153 ] Madrid is the headquarters of media groups such as Radiotelevisión Española, Atresmedia, Mediaset España Comunicación, and Movistar+, which produce numerous films, television receiver shows and series which are distributed globally on versatile platforms. [ 154 ] Since 2018, the area is besides home plate to Netflix ‘s Madrid Production Hub, Mediapro Studio, and numerous others such as Viacom International Studios. [ 155 ] [ 156 ] [ 157 ] [ 158 ] As of 2019, the film and television diligence in Madrid employs 19,000 people ( 44 % of people in Spain working in this diligence ). [ 159 ]
RTVE, the state-owned spanish Radio and Television Corporation is headquartered in Madrid along with all its television receiver and radio channels and web services ( La 1, La 2, Clan, Teledeporte, 24 Horas, TVE Internacional, Radio Nacional de España ), Radio Exterior de España, Radio Clásica. The Atresmedia group ( Antena 3, La Sexta, Onda Cero ) is headquartered in nearby San Sebastián de los Reyes. The television net and media production company, the largest in Spain, Mediaset España Comunicación ( Telecinco, Cuatro ) maintains its headquarters in Fuencarral-El Pardo district. together with RTVE, Atresmedia and Mediaset account for about the 80 % of parcel of renaissance man television. [ 160 ] The spanish media conglomerate PRISA ( Cadena SER, Los 40 Principales, M80 Radio, Cadena Dial ) is headquartered in Gran Vía street in cardinal Madrid. Madrid ( or the wider region ) hosts the chief television receiver and radio receiver producers and broadcasters a well as the most of the major written mass media in Spain. [ 160 ] It is home to numerous newspapers, magazines and publications, including ABC, El País, El Mundo, La Razón, Marca, ¡Hola!, Diario AS, El Confidencial and Cinco Días. The spanish international newsworthiness representation EFE maintains its headquarter in Madrid since its origin in 1939. The second news representation of Spain is the privately owned Europa Press, founded and headquartered in Madrid since 1953 .

artwork and polish.

Museums and cultural centres.

Madrid is considered one of the top european destinations concerning artwork museums. Best acknowledge is the Golden Triangle of Art, located along the Paseo del Prado and comprising three major museums : the Prado Museum, the Reina Sofía Museum, and the Thyssen Bornemisza Museum. The Prado Museum ( Museo del Prado ) is a museum and art gallery that features one of the world ‘s finest collections of european art, from the twelfth century to the early nineteenth hundred, based on the early spanish Royal Collection. It has the best collection of artworks by Goya, Velázquez, El Greco, Rubens, Titian, Hieronymus Bosch, José de Ribera, and Patinir american samoa well as works by Rogier vanguard five hundred Weyden, Raphael Sanzio, Tintoretto, Veronese, Caravaggio, Van Dyck, Albrecht Dürer, Claude Lorrain, Murillo, and Zurbarán, among others. Some of the standout works exhibited at the museum include Las Meninas, La maja vestida, La maja desnuda, The Garden of Earthly Delights, The Immaculate Conception and The Judgement of Paris. The Reina Sofía National Art Museum ( Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía ; MNCARS ) is Madrid ‘s national museum of 20th-century art and houses Pablo Picasso ‘s 1937 anti-war masterpiece, Guernica. other highlights of the museum, which is chiefly dedicated to spanish art, include excellent collections of Spain ‘s greatest 20th-century masters including Salvador Dalí, Joan Miró, Picasso, Juan Gris, and Julio González. The Reina Sofía besides hosts a free-access art library. [ 161 ] The Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum ( Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza ) is an art museum that fills the historical gaps in its counterparts ‘ collections : in the Prado ‘s case, this includes italian primitives and works from the English, Dutch, and german schools, while in the shell of the Reina Sofía, the Thyssen-Bornemisza collection, once the irregular largest secret collection in the populace after the british Royal Collection, [ 162 ] includes Impressionists, Expressionists, and european and american paintings from the second one-half of the twentieth hundred, with over 1,600 paintings. [ 163 ]
The National Archaeological Museum of Madrid ( Museo Arqueológico Nacional ) shows archaeological finds from Prehistory to the nineteenth century ( including Roman mosaics, greek ceramics, Islamic art and Romanesque art ), specially from the iberian Peninsula, distributed over three floors. An iconic item in the museum is the Lady of Elche, an iberian tear from the fourth century BC. early major pieces include the Lady of Baza, the Lady of Cerro de los Santos, the Lady of Ibiza, the Bicha of Balazote, the Treasure of Guarrazar, the Pyxis of Zamora, the Mausoleum of Pozo Moro or a napier ‘s bones. In addition, the museum has a reproduction of the polychromatic paintings in the Altamira Cave. The Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando ( Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando ) houses a very well art solicitation of paintings ranging the 15th to 20th centuries. The academy is besides the headquarter of the Madrid Academy of Art. [ n. 2 ] CaixaForum Madrid is a post-modern art gallery in the center of Madrid, next to the Prado Museum. [ 166 ] The Royal Palace of Madrid, a massive build characterised by its deluxe rooms, houses rich collections of armours and weapons, angstrom well as the most comprehensive collection of Stradivarius in the populace. [ 167 ] The Museo de las Colecciones Reales is a future museum intended to host the most outstanding pieces of the Royal Collections partially of the Patrimonio Nacional. Located adjacent to the Royal Palace and the Almudena, Patrimonio Nacional has tentatively scheduled its open for 2021. [ 168 ]
The Museum of the Americas ( Museo de América ) is a home museum that holds artistic, archaeological, and ethnographic collections from the Americas, ranging from the Paleolithic period to the present day. [ 169 ] early celebrated museums include the National Museum of Natural Sciences ( the Spain ‘s national museum of lifelike history ), [ 170 ] the Naval Museum, [ 171 ] the Convent of Las Descalzas Reales ( with many works of Renaissance and Baroque art, and Brussels tapestries inspired by paintings of Rubens ), [ 172 ] the Museum of Lázaro Galdiano ( caparison a collection specialising in cosmetic arts, featuring a collection of weapons that features the sword of Pope Innocent VIII ), [ 173 ] the National Museum of Decorative Arts, [ 174 ] the National Museum of Romanticism ( focused on 19th hundred Romanticism ), [ 175 ] the Museum Cerralbo, [ 176 ] the National Museum of Anthropology ( featuring ampere highlight a Guanche mummy from Tenerife ) [ 177 ] the Sorolla Museum ( focused in the namesake Valencian Impressionist cougar, [ 178 ] besides including sculptures by Auguste Rodin, depart of Sorolla ‘s personal effects ), [ 179 ] or the History Museum of Madrid ( housing pieces related to the local history of Madrid ), the Wax Museum of Madrid, the Railway Museum ( located in the build that was once the Delicias Station ). major cultural centres in the city include the Fine Arts Circle ( one of Madrid ‘s oldest arts centres and one of the most important private cultural centres in Europe, hosting exhibitions, shows, film screenings, conferences and workshops ), the Conde Duque cultural center or the Matadero Madrid, a cultural complex ( once an abattoir ) located by the river Manzanares. The Matadero, created in 2006 with the draw a bead on of “ promoting research, production, learn, and diffusion of creative works and contemporary think in all their manifestations ”, is considered the third gear most rate cultural initiation in Madrid among art professionals. [ 180 ]


Madrid has been one of the great centres of spanish literature. Some of the most distinguished writers of the spanish Golden Century were born in Madrid, including Lope de Vega ( writer of Fuenteovejuna and The Dog in the Manger ), who reformed the spanish field, a project continued by Calderon de la Barca ( author of Life is a Dream ). Francisco de Quevedo, who criticised the spanish company of his day, and author of El Buscón, and Tirso de Molina, who created the character Don Juan, were born in Madrid. Cervantes and Góngora besides lived in the city, although they were not born there. The Madrid homes of Lope de Vega, Quevedo, Gongora, and Cervantes hush exist, and they are all in the Barrio de las Letras ( Literary Neighborhood ). early writers born in Madrid in late centuries have been Leandro Fernandez de Moratín, Mariano José de Larra, Jose de Echegaray ( Nobel Prize in Literature ), Ramón Gómez de la Serna, Dámaso Alonso, Enrique Jardiel Poncela and Pedro Salinas .
The “ Barrio de las Letras ” owes its name to the intense literary activity taking position there during the 16th and 17th centuries. Some of the most big writers of the spanish Golden Age lived here, such as Lope de Vega, Quevedo, and Góngora, and it contained the Cruz and Príncipe Theatres, two of the most crucial in Spain. At 87 Calle de Atocha, on the northerly end of the neighborhood, was the print house of Juan de la Cuesta, where the first edition of Don Quixote was typeset and printed in 1604. Most of the literary routes are articulated [ further explanation needed ] along the Barrio de las Letras, where you can find scenes from novels of the Siglo de Oro and more holocene works like “ bohemian Lights “. [ further explanation needed ] Although born in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, realist writer Benito Pérez Galdós made Madrid the setting for many of his stories ; there is a giidebook to the Madrid of Galdós ( Madrid galdosiano ). [ 181 ]
Interior of the National Library of Spain Madrid is home to the Real Academia Española, the Royal Academy of the spanish Language, which governs, with statutory agency, over spanish, [ 182 ] train, publish, and updating authoritative reference book works on it. The academy ‘s motto ( lema, in spanish ) states its function : it cleans the lyric, stabilizes it, and gives it brilliance ( “ Limpia, fija yttrium district attorney resplendor ” ). Madrid is besides home to another external cultural institution, the Instituto Cervantes, whose job is the promotion and teach of the spanish terminology american samoa well as the dispersion of the culture of Spain and Hispanic America. The National Library of Spain is the largest major populace library in Spain. The library ‘s collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other print materials, 30,000 manuscripts, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 510,000 music scores, 500,000 maps, 600,000 sound recording, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, more than 500,000 microforms, etc. [ 183 ]


Three squid sandwiches Patatas bravas, a very common bar snack served as tapa., a identical common cake bite served as The Madrilenian cuisine has received enough of influences from other regions of Spain and its own identity actually relies in its ability to assimilate elements from the immigration. [ 184 ] The cocido madrileño, a chickpea -based grizzle, is one of the most emblematic dishes of the Madrilenian cuisine. [ 185 ] The callos a la madrileña [es] is another traditional winter forte, normally made of cattle tripes. [ 186 ] early offal dishes distinctive in the city include the gallinejas [es] [ 186 ] or grilled slob ‘s auricle. [ 187 ] Fried squid has become a culinary forte in Madrid, much consumed in sandwich as bocata de calamares. [ 186 ] early generic dishes normally accepted as separate of the Madrilenian cuisine include the potaje, the sopa de ajo ( Garlic soup ), the spanish omelet, the besugo a la madrileña [es] ( bream ), caracoles a la madrileña [es] ( snails, sp. Cornu aspersum ) or the soldaditos de Pavía, the patatas bravas ( consumed as nosh in bars ) or the gallina en pepitoria [es] ( hen or chicken cooked with the egg yolk of hard-boiled eggs and almonds ) to name a few. [ 188 ] [ 189 ] [ 184 ] traditional desserts include torrijas ( a form of french pledge consumed in the Easter ) [ 186 ] [ 190 ] and bartolillos [es]. [ 189 ]


nightlife in the Centro District Madrid is an international hub of highly active and diverse nightlife with bars, dance bars and nightclubs staying open well past midnight. [ 191 ] Madrid is reputed to have a “ vibrant nightlife “. [ 192 ] Some of the highlight bustling locations include the surroundings of the Plaza de Santa Ana, Malasaña and La Latina ( particularly near the Cava Baja [ es ] ). [ 192 ] It is one of the city ‘s independent attractions with tapa bars, cocktail bars, clubs, sleep together lounges, exist music venues and flamenco theatres. Most cabaret liven up by 1:30 a.m.and bide open until at least 6 a.m. [ 192 ] Nightlife flourished in the 1980s while Madrid ‘s mayor Enrique Tierno Galván ( PSOE ) was in position, nurturing the cultural-musical campaign known as La Movida. [ 193 ] Nowadays, the Malasaña area is known for its alternate scene. The area of Chueca has besides become a hot touch in the Madrilenian nightlife, specially for the gay population. Chueca is known as cheery quarter, comparable to The Castro district in San Francisco. [ 194 ]

bohemian culture.

The city has venues for performing alternative art and expressive art. They are largely located in the kernel of the city, including in Ópera, Antón Martín, Chueca and Malasaña. There are besides several festivals in Madrid, including the Festival of Alternative Art, the Festival of the Alternative Scene. [ 195 ] [ 196 ] [ 197 ] [ 198 ] The neighborhood of Malasaña, vitamin a well as Antón Martín and Lavapiés, hosts several bohemian cafés/galleries. These cafés are typified with period or retro furniture or furniture found on the street, a colorful, nontraditional atmosphere inside, and normally art expose each month by a new artist, often for sale. Cafés include the retro café Lolina and gypsy cafés La Ida, La Paca and Café de la Luz in Malasaña, La Piola in Huertas and Café Olmo and Aguardiente in Lavapiés. In the vicinity of Lavapiés, there are besides “ hide houses ”, which are illegal bars or abandoned spaces where concerts, poetry readings and [ 199 ] [ 200 ] [ 201 ] the celebrated spanish botellón ( a street party or meet that is now illegal but rarely stopped ) .

classical music and opera.

The Auditorio Nacional de Música [ 202 ] is the main venue for classical music concerts in Madrid. It is home to the spanish National Orchestra, the Chamartín Symphony Orchestra [ 203 ] and the venue for the symphonic concerts of the Community of Madrid Orchestra and the Madrid Symphony Orchestra. It is besides the chief venue for orchestras on tour play in Madrid. The Teatro Real is the main opera house in Madrid, located just in front of the Royal Palace, and its house physician orchestra is the Madrid Symphony Orchestra. [ 204 ] The theater stages around seventeen opera titles ( both own productions and co-productions with other major european opera houses ) per year, american samoa well as two or three major ballets and respective recitals. The Teatro de la Zarzuela is chiefly devoted to Zarzuela ( the spanish traditional musical field genre ), angstrom well as operetta and recitals. [ 205 ] [ 206 ] The resident orchestra of the field is the Community of Madrid Orchestra. The Teatro Monumental is the concert venue of the RTVE Symphony Orchestra. [ 207 ] other concert venues for classical music are the Fundación Joan March and the Auditorio 400, devoted to contemporary music .

Feasts and festivals.

San Isidro.

pradera, 2007. Festivities of San Isidro Labrador in the, 2007. The local feast equality excellence is the Day of Isidore the Laborer ( San Isidro Labrador ), the patron Saint of Madrid, celebrated on 15 May. It is a public holiday. According to tradition, Isidro was a farmworker and well manufacturer born in Madrid in the former eleventh century, who lived a pious life and whose cadaver was reportedly found to be incorrupt in 1212. already very popular among the madrilenian people, as Madrid became the capital of the Hispanic Monarchy in 1561 the city council pulled efforts to promote his canonization ; the march started in 1562. [ 208 ] Isidro was beatified in 1619 and the banquet day set on 15 May [ 209 ] ( he was ultimately canonized in 1622 ). [ 210 ] On 15 May the Madrilenian people gather around the hermitage of San Isidro [ east ] and the Prairie of San Isidro [ e ] ( on the right-bank of the Manzanares ) much dressed with checkered caps ( parpusas [es] ) and kerchiefs ( safos ) [ 211 ] characteristic of the chulapos and chulapas, dancing chotis and pasodobles, eating rosquillas and barquillos. [ 212 ]

LGBT pride.

eminent heels subspecies in WorldPride Madrid 2017 The Madrilenian LGBT Pride has grown to become the event bringing the most people together in the city each year [ 213 ] arsenic well as one of the most importants Pride celebrations worldwide. [ 214 ] Madrid ‘s Pride Parade began in 1977, in the Chueca vicinity, which besides marked the begin of the cheery, lesbian, transgender, and bisexual rights drift after being repressed for forty years in a dictatorship. [ 215 ] This claim of LGBT rights has allowed the Pride Parade in Madrid to grow class after year, becoming one of the best in the world. In 2007, this was recognised by the European Pride Owners Association ( EPOA ) when Madrid hosted Europride, the official european Pride Parade. It was hailed by the President of the EPOA as “ the best Europride in history ”. [ 216 ] In 2017, Madrid celebrated the fortieth anniversary of their first Pride Parade by hosting the WorldPride Madrid 2017. numerous conferences, seminars and workshops equally well as cultural and sports activities took place at the festival, the event being a “ kids and family pride ” and a source of department of education. More than one million people attended the pride ‘s central march. [ 217 ] The chief determination of the celebration was presenting Madrid and the spanish company in general as a multicultural, divers, and tolerant community. [ 215 ] The 2018 Madrid Pride roughly had 1.5 million participants. [ 147 ] p. 34 Since Spain legalised same-sex marriage in July 2005, [ 218 ] Madrid has become one of the largest hot spots for LGBT culture. With about 500 businesses aimed toward the LGBT community, Madrid has become a “ Gateway of Diversity ”. [ 216 ]


pregón) of the 2013 Carnival People in costumes during the proclamation ( ) of the 2013 carnival Despite often being labelled as “ having no custom ” by foreigners, [ 219 ] the Carnival was popular in Madrid already in the sixteenth century. however, during the Francoist dictatorship the carnival was under government banish and the feasts suffered a adult blow. [ 219 ] [ 220 ] It has been slowly recovering since then. other signalled days include the regional day ( 2 May ) commemorating the Dos de Mayo Uprising ( a public vacation ), the feasts of San Antonio de la Florida ( 13 June ), the fete of the Virgen de la Paloma ( circa 15 August ) or the sidereal day of the co-patron of Madrid, the Virgin of Almudena ( 9 November ), although the latter ‘s celebrations are rather religious in nature. [ 221 ] The most authoritative melodious event in the city is the Mad Cool festival ; created in 2016, it reached an attendance of 240,000 during the three-day long schedule of the 2018 edition. [ 147 ] p. 33


madrid hosts the largest plaza de toros ( bullring ) in Spain, Las Ventas, established in 1929. Las Ventas is considered by many to be the populace center of bullfighting and has a seating capacity of about 25,000. Madrid ‘s bullfighting season begins in March and ends in October. Bullfights are held every day during the festivities of San Isidro ( Madrid ‘s patron canonize ) from mid May to early June, and every Sunday, and populace holiday, the pillow of the season. The style of the plaza is Neo-Mudéjar. Las Ventas besides hosts music concerts and other events outside of the bullfighting season .


real Madrid, cabaret founded in 1902, competes in La Liga and play their home games at the Santiago Bernabéu. The club is one of the most widely supported teams in the earth and their supporters are referred to as madridistas or merengues ( Meringues ). Real was selected as the best club of the twentieth hundred ( FIFA Club of the Century ), being the most valuable sports team in the populace and the most successful football team with a commemorate 26 international titles, and a record 13 european Cups. Atlético Madrid, club founded in 1903, competes in La Liga and play their home games at the Metropolitano Stadium. The club is besides well-supported in the city, having the third base national fan root in Spain and their supporters are referred to as atléticos or colchoneros ( The Mattressers ). [ 222 ] Atlético is considered a European elect team, having reached in the last ten-spot seasons, two UEFA Europa League titles and two UEFA Champions League finals. Historically nationally, Atletico has won eleven Leagues and ten Cups. Madrid has hosted five european Cup/Champions League finals, four at the Bernabéu, and the most holocene 2019 final at the Metropolitano. As well, the Bernabéu has hosted the final examination matches for the home teams competitions 1964 UEFA European Championship and 1982 FIFA World Cup .


real Madrid Baloncesto, section founded in 1931, competes in Liga ACB and play their home games at the Palacio de Deportes ( WiZink Center ). veridical Madrid ‘s basketball segment, like its football team, is the most successful basketball team in Europe, with a phonograph record 10 EuroLeague titles, and a national criminal record 35 Leagues and 28 Cups. Club Baloncesto Estudiantes, clubhouse founded in 1948, competes in LEB Oro and play their dwelling games besides at the Palacio de Deportes ( WiZink Center ). Estudiantes was one of the only three teams until 2021, that have never been relegated from the Spain ‘s top division. Historically nationally, its achievements include three Cups and four League runner-up positions. Madrid has hosted six european Cup/EuroLeague finals, the last two at the Palacio de Deportes. Regarding national teams competitions, the city hosted the concluding matches for the 1986 and 2014 FIBA World Cups and the EuroBasket 2007, both held at the Palacio de Deportes .


The main annual external events held in Madrid are in cycling, the Vuelta a España ( La Vuelta ), one of the three worldwide esteemed three-week-long Grand Tours, that takes Madrid as the final stage, in the first workweek Sunday of September. In tennis hosts Madrid Open, a male and female tennis tournament, played on clay court. The consequence is part of the nine ATP Masters 1000 and the nine WTA 1000 tournaments. It is held during the first workweek of May in the Caja Mágica. besides since 2019, hosts the finals of the major tournament between men ‘s national teams, Davis Cup .


education in Spain is free, and compulsory from 6 to 16 years. The education arrangement is called LOE ( Ley Orgánica de Educación ). [ 223 ]


Madrid is home to many public and private universities. Some of them are among the oldest in the world, and many of them are the most prestigious universities in Spain. The National Distance Education University ( Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia ; UNED ) has as its deputation the public service of higher department of education through the modality of distance education. At more than 205,000 students ( 2015 ), UNED has the largest student population in Spain and is one of the largest universities in Europe. Since 1972, UNED has sought to translate into action the principle of equal opportunity in entree to higher education through a methodology based on the principles of distance learn and focused on the needs of the scholar. [ citation needed ]
The Complutense University of Madrid ( Universidad Complutense de Madrid ; UCM ) is the second largest university in Spain after UNED and one of the oldest universities in the world. It has over 11,000 staff members and a student population of 117,000. Most of the academic staff is spanish. It is located on two campuses, the chief one of Ciudad Universitaria in the Moncloa-Aravaca district, and the secondary campus of Somosaguas, located outside the city limits in Pozuelo de Alarcón and founded in 1971. [ 224 ] [ 225 ] The Complutense University of Madrid was founded in Alcalá de Henares, old Complutum, by Cardinal Cisneros in 1499. Nevertherless, its actual lineage dates back to 1293, when King Sancho IV of Castile built the General Schools of Alcalá, which would give resurrect to Cisnero ‘s Complutense University. During the course of 1509–1510 five schools were already operative : Artes y Filosofía ( Arts and Philosophy ), Teología ( Theology ), Derecho Canónico ( Canonical Laws ), Letras ( Liberal Arts ) and Medicina ( Medicine ). In 1836, during the reign of Isabel II, the university was moved to Madrid, where it took the name of Central University and was located at San Bernardo Street. Subsequently, in 1927, a newly University City ( Ciudad Universitaria ) was planned to be built in the district of Moncloa-Aravaca, in lands handed over by the King Alfonso XIII to this purpose. The spanish Civil War turned the University City into a war zone, causing the destruction of several schools in the sphere, vitamin a well as the loss of part of its rich scientific, artistic and bibliographic inheritance. In 1970 the Government reformed the senior high school education, and the Central University became the Complutense University of Madrid. It was then when the modern campus at Somosaguas was created to house the new School of Social Sciences. The old Alcalá campus was reopened as the independent UAH, University of Alcalá, in 1977. Complutense besides serves to the population of students who select Madrid as their residency during their discipline overseas period. Students from the United States for model, might go to Madrid on a program like API ( Academic Programs International ) and discipline at Complutense for an intense immersion into the spanish Language. After studying at the university, students return dwelling with a eloquent sense of spanish arsenic well as acculturation and diverseness. [ 226 ]
The Technical University of Madrid ( Universidad Politécnica de Madrid ; UPM ), is the crown technical university in Spain. It is the result of the amalgamation of different Technical Schools of Engineering. It shares the Ciudad Universitaria campus with the UCM, while it besides owns several schools scattered in the city concentrate and extra campuses in the Puente de Vallecas district and in the neighbor municipality of Boadilla del Monte. The Autonomous University of Madrid ( Universidad Autónoma de Madrid ; UAM ) was instituted under the leadership of the physicist, Nicolás Cabrera. The Autonomous University is widely recognised for its research strengths in theoretical physics. Known plainly as La Autónoma by locals, its main web site is the Cantoblanco Campus, located at the North of the municipality, close to its boundaries with the neighbouring municipalities of Alcobendas, San Sebastián de los Reyes and Tres Cantos. Located on the chief site are the Rectorate build up and the Faculties of Science, Philosophy and Fine Arts, Law, Economic Science and Business Studies, Psychology, Higher School of Computing Science and Engineering, and the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education. The UAM is considered the mental hospital to study law in Spain, [ according to whom? ] [ 227 ] The Medical School is sited outside the main web site and beside the Hospital Universitario La Paz. [ 228 ] The secret Comillas Pontifical University ( Universidad Pontificia Comillas ; UPC ) has its rectorship and respective faculties in Madrid. The private Nebrija University is besides based in Madrid. Some of the big public universities headquartered in the surround municipalities besides have secondary campuses in Madrid proper : it is the encase of the Charles III University of Madrid ( Universidad Carlos III de Madrid ; UC3M ) with its chief web site in Getafe and an educational facility in Embajadores ( after signing a hand with the regional government and the city council in 2011 ) [ 229 ] and the King Juan Carlos University ( Universidad Rey Juan Carlos ; URJC ) having its independent site in Móstoles and a secondary campus in Vicálvaro. The private Camilo José Cela University ( Universidad Camilo José Cela ; UCJC ) has a postgrade school in Chamberí .

clientele schools.

Students of the IE Business School IE Business School ( once Instituto de Empresa ) has its main campus on the edge of the Chamartín and Salamanca districts of Madrid. IE Business School recently ranked # 1 in WSJ ‘s 2009 rankings for Best MBA Programs under 2 years. It scored ahead of usual stalwarts, INSEAD and IMD, giving it lead charge among International MBA programs. Although based in Barcelona, both IESE Business School and ESADE Business School besides have Madrid campuses. These three schools are the top-ranked business schools in Spain, systematically rank among the acme 20 business schools globally, and offer MBA programs ( in English or spanish ) a well as early clientele degrees. Madrid is a thoroughly destination for business schools and a city a lot desired by extraneous students. The most important spanish business schools ( IESE, IE, ESADE ) have invested 125 million euros in expanding their campuses in Madrid in 2020. [ 230 ] early Madrid clientele schools and universities that have MBA programs include : EAE Business School ( in English and Spanish ), the Charles III University of Madrid through the Centro de Ampliación de Estudios ( in English or Spanish ) ; the Comillas Pontifical University ( in Spanish merely ) and the Technical University of Madrid ( in Spanish only ) .


In 2018, Madrid banned all non-resident vehicles from its business district areas. [ 231 ] [ 232 ] The M-607 meets the M-30 north of the municipality. Madrid is served by several roads and three modes of public open enchant, and two airports, one of them being about two different airports. A great many crucial road, rail and atmosphere links converge on the capital, providing effective connections with other parts of the metropolitan region and with the rest of Spain and other parts of Europe .

Road conveyance.

Madrid Central

Cars ( except for hybrid and electric vehicles american samoa well as residents and guests ) were banned in the madrid Central low-emission zone in 2018. [ 233 ] [ 234 ] contamination in the area dropped following the banish. [ 235 ] [ 233 ] In 2016 it was announced that Madrid will stop the use of all diesel powered cars and trucks within the adjacent decade. [ 236 ]

Radial roads

The network of high capacity roads in Spain features its most crucial node in Madrid. Madrid is the kernel of the most crucial roads of Spain. already in 1720, the Reglamento General de Postas enacted by Philip V configurated the basis of a radial system of roads in the country. [ 237 ] Madrid features a number of the most outstanding autovías ( fast dualled highways ), part of the State Road Network [ vitamin e ]. Clock-wise starting from the union : the A-1 ( Madrid– Irún – French border ), A-2 ( Madrid– Zaragoza – Barcelona –French border ), A-3 ( Madrid– Valencia ), A-4 ( Madrid– Córdoba – Sevilla – Cádiz ), A-5 ( Madrid– Badajoz – Portuguese boundary line ) and the A-6 ( Madrid– A Coruña ). The A-42, another highway connecting Madrid to Toledo, is besides partially of the State Network. The M-607 connects Madrid to the Puerto de Navacerrada. It is a fast dualled highway in its initial stretch from Madrid to Colmenar Viejo, and separate of the Regional Road Network [ einsteinium ] ( in relation to the concerning administration, not to the technical features of the road ). ascribable to the large sum of traffic, new price highways were built parallel to the main national freeways. Their names are R-2 [ e ], R-3, R-4 and R-5 [ east ] and they were intended to provide a yield alternative to the often overcrowd spare radials. however, except the R-3, they do not end close up to the M-30 inmost ring road, as the r-2 finishes in the M-40, the R-4 in the M-50 and the R-5 in the M-40 .

Orbital roads

M-30 burrow parallel to the Manzanares besides Madrid road network includes four orbital ones at different distances from the center. The inmost ring-road, the M-30, is the lone one with its path strictly located within the Madrid municipal limits. It is owned by the Madrid City Council and operated by Madrid Calle 30, S.A. It is the busiest spanish road, celebrated for its traffic jams. A significant helping of the southern separate runs underground parallel to the Manzanares, with burrow sections of more than 6 kilometres ( 3.7 miles ) in duration and 3 to 6 lanes in each direction. The second ring-road, the M-40 ( separate of the State Road Network ) circles the city, while besides extending to other surrounding municipalities. A NW stretch of the road runs underground, below the southern reaches of the Monte de El Pardo protected area. The M-45 partially circles the city, connecting the M-40 and M-50, passing through areas like Villaverde and Vallecas in the South-East of the municipality. The M-50, the Madrid ‘s outer ring road, connects municipalities and cities in the metropolitan area, like Fuenlabrada, Móstoles, Getafe, Leganés in the South and Boadilla del Monte and Las Rozas in the West .

Public tape drive.

There are four major components of public transport, with many intermodal interchanges. The Consorcio Regional de Transportes de Madrid ( CRTM ) coordinates the populace enchant operations across multiple providers in the area, [ 238 ] [ 239 ] harmonizing fares for the commuter rail, rapid transit, abstemious railing and bus transmit services provided by different operators .


The Metro is the rapid passage system serving Madrid angstrom well as some suburbs. Founded in 1919, it undergo extensive enlargement in the second one-half of the twentieth century. [ 240 ] It is the second base longest metro system in Europe ( after London ‘s ) at 294 kilometres ( 183 miles ). As of 2019, it has 302 stations. [ 241 ] only the Métro of Paris has more stations. It features 13 lines ; 12 of them are colour-coded and numbered 1 to 12 ( Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 5, Line 6, Line 7, Line 8, Line 9, Line 10, Line 11 and Line 12 ), while the other one, the abruptly Ramal ( R ), links Ópera to Príncipe Pío. [ 240 ]


Cercanías Madrid is the commuter railing overhaul used for longer distances from the suburb and beyond into Madrid, consisting of nine lines totalling 578 kilometres ( 359 miles ) and more than 90 stations. With fewer stops inside the center of the city they are faster than the Metro, but run less frequently. This system is connected with Metro ( soon 22 stations ) and Light Metro. The lines are named : C-1, C-2, C-3, C-4, C-5, C-7, C-8, C-9, C-10, respectively .


There is a dense network of bus routes, run by the municipal ship’s company Empresa Municipal de Transportes ( or EMT Madrid ), which operates 24 hours a day ; special services called “ N lines ” are run during night. The special Airport Express Shuttle tune connecting the airport with the city center features distinctively yellow buses. In addition to the urban lines operated by the EMT, the green buses ( interurbanos ) connect the city with the suburb. The subsequently lines, while besides regulated by the CRTM, are frequently run by private operators. about half of all journeys in the metropolitan area are made on populace tape drive, a very high symmetry compared with most european cities. [ 139 ] : 62–4 Madrid has 15723 taxis around all the city .


The cab are regulated by a specific sub-division of cab service, a body dependent of the Madrid City Council. The authority entails a badge for the fomite and a license for the driver, who has to be older than 18. [ 242 ] Since the 1970s, the fleet of taxis has remained stable approximately around 16,000 vehicles, accounting for 15,600 in 2014. [ 243 ]

long-distance enchant.

In terms of longer-distance transport, Madrid is the central node of the system of autovías, giving the city calculate fast road links with most parts of Spain and with France and Portugal. It is besides the focal point of one of the worldly concern ‘s three largest high-speed railing systems, Alta Velocidad Española ( AVE ), which has brought major cities such as Seville and Barcelona within 2.5 hours travel time. There are now 2,900 kilometres ( 1,800 miles ) of AVE cut, connecting Madrid with 17 peasant capitals, and far lines are under construction. [ 139 ] : 72–75 besides Spain commercial enterprise are designing modern high speed trains which will be the new generation AVE like Talgo AVRIL. digression from the local and regional bus commutation services, Madrid is besides a lymph node for long-distance bus connections to batch of national destinations. The Estación Sur de Autobuses [ einsteinium ] in Méndez Álvaro, the busiest bus post in the area, [ 244 ] besides features international bus topology connections to cities in Morocco a well as to diverse european destinations. [ 244 ]


Madrid is besides home to the Madrid-Barajas Airport, the sixth-largest airport in Europe, handling over 60 million passengers per annum, of whom 70 % are international travellers, in summation to the majority of Spain ‘s publicize freight movements. [ 139 ] : 76–78 Barajas is a major european hub, yet a largely west facing one, specialized in the Americas, with a relatively light connectivity to Asia. [ 245 ] Madrid ‘s location at the concentrate of the iberian Peninsula makes it a major logistics foundation. [ 139 ] : 79–80 Madrid-Barajas Airport has 4 Terminals and besides the concluding 4S, called Satellite terminal, this terminal is 2 kilometres ( 1.2 miles ) from the terminal 4 and connected by an automated People Mover System ( AMP ) train. The smaller ( and older ) Cuatro Vientos Airport has a double military-civilian use and hosts several aviation schools. The Torrejón Air Base, located in the neighbor municipality of Torrejón de Ardoz, besides has a secondary civilian use aside from the military aim .

International relations.


madrid hosts 121 foreign embassies accredited before Spain, [ 246 ] comprising all nonmigratory embassies in the area. The headquarters of the spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, European Union and Cooperation, the spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation and the diplomatic School are besides located in the city .

International organizations.

madrid hosts the seat of external organizations such as the United Nations ‘ World Tourism Organization ( UNWTO ), the Ibero-American General Secretariat ( SEGIB ), the Organization of Ibero-American States ( OEI ), the International Youth Organism for Iberoamerica [ vitamin e ] ( OIJ ), the Ibero-American Organization of Social Security [ east ] ( OISS ), the International Organization of Securities Commissions ( IOSCO ), the Club of Madrid and the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas ( ICCAT )

Twin towns and baby cities.

Madrid has reached twin towns, sister city ‘agreements ‘ ( acuerdos ) with : [ 247 ]
Madrid has reached duplicate towns, sister city ‘minutes ‘ ( actas ) with : [ 247 ]

Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities.

Madrid is part of the Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities [ 249 ] establishing brotherly relations with the following cities through the issue of a collective affirmation in October 1982 :

other city partnerships.

Partnerships with international organizations.

noteworthy people.


See besides.




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