Nicosia ( NIK-ə-SEE-ə ; greek : Λευκωσία, romanized : Lefkosía [ lefkoˈsi.a ] ; turkish : Lefkoşa [ lefˈkoʃa ] ; armenian : Նիկոսիա, romanized : Nikosia ; Cypriot Arabic : Nikusiya [ 3 ] [ 4 ] ) is the largest city, capital, and induct of politics of Cyprus. It is located near the center of the Mesaoria plain, on the banks of the River Pedieos.
According to Greek mythology, Nicosia ( Lefkosia in Greek ) was a siren, one of the daughters of Acheloos and Melpomene and its diagnose translates as “ White State ” or city of White Gods. nicosia is the southeasternmost of all EU extremity states ‘ capitals. It has been continuously inhabited for over 4,500 years and has been the capital of Cyprus since the tenth hundred. The greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities of Nicosia segregated into the south and north of the city respectively in early 1964, following the fight of the Cyprus crisis of 1963–64 that broke out in the city. This separation became a militarised border between the Republic of Cyprus and Northern Cyprus after Turkey invaded the island of Cyprus in 1974, occupying the north of the island, including northern Nicosia. Today North Nicosia is the capital of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a state recognized only by Turkey. apart from its legislative and administrative functions, Nicosia has established itself as the island ‘s fiscal capital and its main international business center. [ 5 ] In 2018, Nicosia was the thirty-second richest city in the populace in relative buy power. [ 6 ]
- 1 toponymy.
- 2 history.
- 3 geography.
- 4 cityscape.
- 5 Politics and administration.
- 6 religion.
- 7 culture.
- 8 education.
- 9 economy.
- 10 transportation.
- 11 Sports.
- 12 luminary people.
- 13 Twin towns – baby cities.
- 14 See besides.
- 15 References.
- 16 bibliography.
The earliest note of Nicosia is in the mud prism of the assyrian neo-aramaic king Esarhaddon in 672 BC. This is a mention to the city state of Ledra located on the site of Nicosia, and the city is named “ Lidir ”. The name Ledra and variations ( such as Ledroi ) remained in use deoxyadenosine monophosphate late as 392 AD, when it was used in compose by Saint Jerome. however, that textbook besides refers the city as “ Leucotheon ”, and early christian sources of this menstruation are the first to use like variations of the name Lefkosia ( e.g. Leuteonos ). [ 7 ] The origin of the name “ Lefkosia ” is considered by scholars to be a “ toponymic perplex ”. The name is recorded in the majority of Byzantine sources as “ Leukousia ”, and it is accepted in literature that the name “ most credibly ” derives from the greek idiom “ leuke ousia ” ( “ white estate ” ). [ 8 ]
Nicosia has been in continuous inhabitancy since the begin of the Bronze Age 2500 years BC, when the beginning inhabitants settled in the prolific apparent of Mesaoria. [ 9 ] Nicosia late became a city state known as Ledra or Ledrae, one of the twelve kingdoms of ancient Cyprus built by Achaeans after the end of the Trojan War. [ citation needed ] Remains of old Ledra today can be found in the Ayia Paraskevi mound in the south east of the city. only one king of Ledra is known : Onasagoras. The kingdom of Ledra was destroyed early. Under assyrian neo-aramaic rule of Cyprus, Onasagoras was recorded as paying tribute to Esarhaddon of Assyria in 672 BC. By 330 BC, Ledra was recorded to be a belittled unimportant town. [ 10 ] It is thought that the liquidation was economically and politically subject on the nearby town of Chytri. [ 11 ] The main activity of the town inhabitants was farming. During this era, Ledra did not have the huge increase that the other Cypriot coastal towns had, which was primarily based on trade wind. [ 12 ]
Ancient and Medieval Roman times.
In Byzantine times, the town was besides referred to as Λευκωσία ( Lefkosia ) or as Καλληνίκησις ( Kallenikesis ). In the fourth hundred AD, the township became the seat of diocese, with bishop Saint Tryphillius ( Trifillios ), a student of Saint Spyridon. [ 13 ] Archaeological testify indicates that the township regained much of its earlier significance in the early christian period, [ 7 ] and the presence of two or three basilica with opus sectile decorations, along with marbles decorated with high relief indicate the presence of a relatively golden and sophisticate christian society. [ 14 ] After the destruction of Salamis, the existing capital of Cyprus, by arabian raids in 647, along with across-the-board wrong to other coastal settlements, the economy of the island became a lot more inward-looking and inland towns gained relative significance. Nicosia benefited from this and functioned as an release of the agricultural products from its backwoods, the Mesaoria apparent. It further was at an advantageous side due to its ample body of water add. As such, the township developed enough for the Byzantine Empire to choose Nicosia as the capital of the island about 965, when Cyprus rejoined the Byzantine Empire. [ 15 ] The Byzantines moved the island ‘s government seat to Nicosia chiefly for security reasons as coastal towns were much suffering from raids. From that item on it has remained as the capital of Cyprus. Nicosia was the seat of the Byzantine governor of Cyprus ; the last Byzantine governor was Isaac Komnenos, who declared himself emperor of the island and ruled the island from 1183 to 1191. [ 16 ] Testimony arsenic late as 1211 indicates that Nicosia was not a wall city at that point and frankincense that the Byzantines did not build a city wall, thinking that the city ‘s inland location would be sufficient for defense purposes. The Byzantines did, however, build a relatively watery fortify within the city. [ 17 ] The economy under Byzantine rule consisted largely of the trade of agricultural goods, but the town besides produced lavishness items and metalware due to the bearing of the imperial administration. [ 18 ]
On his way to the Holy Land during the Third Crusade in 1187, Richard I of England ‘s fleet was plagued by storms. He himself stopped beginning at Crete and then at Rhodes. Three ships continued on, one of which was carrying Joan of England, Queen of Sicily and Berengaria of Navarre, Richard ‘s fiancee. Two of the ships were wrecked off Cyprus, but the ship bear Joan and Berengaria made it safely to Limassol. Joan refused to come ashore, fearing she would be captured and held hostage by Isaac Komnenos of Cyprus, who hated all Franks. Her transport model at anchor for a broad week ahead Richard last arrived on 8 May. Outraged at the treatment of his sister and his future bridget, Richard invaded. [ 19 ] [ citation needed ] Richard laid siege to Nicosia, ultimately met and defeated Isaac Komnenos at Tremetousia and became rule of the island, but sold it to the Knights Templar. The frankish convention of Cyprus started from 1192 and lasted until 1489. During this prison term, Nicosia was the capital of the medieval Kingdom of Cyprus, the seat of Lusignan kings, the Latin Church and the Frankish government of the island. During the Frankish rule, the walls of the city were built along with many other palaces and buildings, including the gothic St. Sophia Cathedral. The grave of the Lusignan kings can be found there. The exonym Nicosia appeared with the arrival of the Lusignans. The french-speaking Crusaders either could not, or did not care to, pronounce the mention Lefkosia, and tended to say “ Nicosie ” translated into italian and then internationally known as “ Nicosia ”. [ citation needed ]
Map of Nicosia in Cyprus, created in 1597 In 1373/4, Nicosia was occupied and ravaged by the Republic of Genoa and in 1426 from the Mamluk Sultanate. [ 20 ] In 1489, when Cyprus came under the rule of the Republic of Venice, Nicosia became their administrative kernel and the seat of the Republic. The venetian Governors saw it as a necessity for all the cities of Cyprus to be fortified due to the Ottoman threat. [ 21 ] In 1567 Venetians built the new fortifications of Nicosia, which are well-preserved until today, demolishing the old walls built by the Franks angstrom well as other authoritative buildings of the Frankish era including the King ‘s Palace, early secret palaces and churches and monasteries of both Orthodox and Latin Christians. [ 22 ] The new walls took the determine of a star with football team bastions. The design of the bastion is more desirable for weapon and a better control for the defenders. The walls have three gates, to the North Kyrenia Gate, to the west Paphos Gate and to the east Famagusta Gate. [ 22 ] The river Pedieos used to flow through the Venetian walled city. In 1567 it was belated diverted outside onto the newly built moat for strategic reasons, due to the expected Ottoman attack. [ 23 ]
view of Nicosia in 1878 On 1 July 1570, the city came under the rule of the Ottomans. On 22 July, Piyale Pasha having captured Paphos, Limassol and Larnaca marched his army towards Nicosia and laid siege to the city. [ 24 ] The city managed to last 40 days under siege until its descend on 9 September 1570. The report of the Cypriot martyr Arnaude de Rocas dates from the fall of Nicosia. Some 20,000 residents died during the siege and every church service, public building, and palace was looted. [ 25 ] Nicosia had an estimated population of 21,000 before the Ottoman conquest, and based on the Ottoman census data of 1572, the population had been reduced to 1,100–1,200. The devastation of the city was so across-the-board that for the few years after the seduction, a number of villages in the island had a larger population than Nicosia. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] The chief romance churches were converted into mosques, such as the conversion of the Saint Sophia Cathedral. nicosia was the induct of the Pasha, the Greek Archbishop, the Dragoman and the Qadi. The Palazzo del Governo of venetian times became the buttocks of the Pasha, the governor of Cyprus, and the build was renamed as the Konak or Seraglio ( Saray ). The square outside was known as Seraglio Square or Sarayonu ( literally battlefront of the Saray ), as it is known to the present day. The saray was demolished in 1904 and the show block of Government Offices built on the web site. [ 28 ] When the newly settled turkish population arrived they generally lived in the north of the previous riverbed. greek Cypriots remained concentrated in the south, where the Archbishopric of the Orthodox Church was built. other ethnic minority groups such as the Armenians and Latins came to be settled near the westerly entrance into the city at Paphos Gate. [ 29 ] The names of the 12 quarters into which Nicosia was originally divided at the time of the Ottoman Conquest are said to be derived from the 12 generals in command of divisions of the Ottoman united states army at the time. Each general being posted to a quarter, that quarter ( with two exceptions ) was known by his list as follows :
- General Ibrahim Pasha.
- General Mahmoud Pasha.
- General Ak Kavuk Pasha. (This is a nickname meaning “white cap”.)
- General Koukoud Effendi.
- General Arab Ahmed Pasha.
- General Abdi Pasha, known as Chavush (Sergeant) from which rank he was probably promoted.
- General Haydar Pasha.
- General Karamanzade (son of a Caramanian, other names not given).
- General Yahya Pasha (now known as the Phaneromeni Quarter).
- General Daniel Pasha (name of quarter changed subsequently to Omerie in honour of the Caliph Omar who stayed there for a night when in Cyprus).
- Tophane (Artillery Barracks)
- Nebetkhane, meaning police station or quarters of the patrol.
The names of the generals in control of the last two-quarters have been lost : belated the number of neighbourhoods was increased to 24. Each neighborhood was organised around a mosque or a church, where chiefly the respective Muslim and Christian communities lived. [ 30 ]
Hoisting the british flag in Nicosia
|Source for 1881–1960.|
nicosia came under the principle of the United Kingdom on 5 July 1878 in consequence of the Cyprus Convention [ why? ]. [ 32 ] The old Ottoman administrative headquarter ( the Saray ) was replaced in 1904 by a new build containing Law Courts, the Land Registry, and the Forestry, Customs, and Nicosia Commissioner ‘s Offices. [ 28 ] Adjacent was the Nicosia Police headquarters, while opposite were the General Post Office and the Telegraph Office. [ 33 ] A venetian Column, previously in a argue court near the Saray, [ 34 ] was restored on a new locate in the summer of 1915 in the center of Saray Square. The Nicosia column was presumably erected in compliment to the reigning Doge Francesco Donati about the year 1550. [ 28 ] just after the british Occupation a Municipal Council was constituted in Nicosia in 1882 for the general administration of public affairs within the city and for a certain area without the walls, under the presidency of a Mayor. [ 28 ] The first municipal offices were in Municipality Square ( immediately the central municipal market ), but in 1944 the offices were transferred temporarily to the d’Avila bastion and in 1952 this was made permanent wave with a decision to renovate the build. [ 35 ]
Extensions to the Nicosia municipal area see of Nicosia in 1914 In 1923 the municipal limits were extended far ( see map ) and this new area was divided among several of the existing intramural Neighbourhoods. [ 36 ] In 1938 the limit was extended to the confront limits in the west and to the boundaries of Ayii Omoloyites, Palouriotissa, Kaimakli and Omorfita. [ 37 ] In 1944 the greenwich village authority of Ayii Omoloyites was absorbed, then, shortly after independence, Palouriotissa, Kaimakli and Omorfita were annexed to the city in 1968. [ 38 ] In 1955 an armed fight against british rule began aiming to unite the island with Greece, Enosis. The conflict was led by EOKA, a greek Cypriot nationalist military resistance organization, [ 39 ] [ 40 ] and supported by the huge majority of greek Cypriots. The union with Greece failed and rather the independence of Cyprus was declared in 1960. During the period of the contend, Nicosia was the scene of violent protests against british rule. [ 41 ] [ 42 ]
independence and division.
Scheme for new pedestrianized streets in old Nicosia implemented after 2004 In 1960, Nicosia became the das kapital of the Republic of Cyprus, a department of state established by the Greek and Turkish Cypriots. In 1963, the greek Cypriot side proposed amendments to the constitution, which were rejected by the turkish Cypriot community. [ 43 ] During the aftermath of this crisis, on 21 December 1963, intercommunal violence broke out between Greek and Turkish Cypriots. Nicosia was divided into Greek and Turkish Cypriot quarters with the green Line, named after the color of the pen used by the United Nations officeholder to draw the line on a map of the city. [ 44 ] This resulted in turkish Cypriots withdraw from the government, and following more intercommunal violence in 1964, a numeral of turkish Cypriots moved to the turkish quarter of Nicosia, causing unplayful overcrowding. [ 45 ] On 15 July 1974, there was an try coup d’etat d’état led by the greek military military junta to unite the island with Greece. The coup d’etat ousted president of the united states Makarios III and replaced him with pro- enosis nationalist Nikos Sampson. [ 46 ] On 20 July 1974, the coup d’état precipitated the invasion of the island by the turkish united states army. [ 47 ] The operation included two phases. The second gear phase of the turkish invasion was performed on 14 August 1974, where the turkish army advanced their positions, finally capturing a sum of 37 % of Cypriot territory including the northerly character of Nicosia. The active left the island with a massive refugee trouble on both sides. [ 48 ] On 13 February 1975, the turkish Cypriot community declared the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus in the area occupied by turkish forces. [ 49 ] On 15 November 1983, Turkish Cypriots proclaimed their independence as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. On 23 April 2003, the Ledra Palace traverse was opened through the Green Line, the first time that crossing was allowed since 1974. [ 50 ] This was followed by the opening of Ayios Dometios / Metehan crossing point on 9 May 2003. [ 51 ] On 3 April 2008, the Ledra Street ford was besides reopened. [ 52 ] From 30 October 2016 and onwards, Nicosia became the entirely capital city in the global that had two time zones, after the parliament of the de facto Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus abolished standard time and decided that Northern Cyprus remains at UTC+03:00 year-round, following Turkey ‘s example. [ 53 ] [ 54 ] The trace year, due to criticism from the turkish Cypriot public in the north, the Turkish Cypriot government decided to go back to criterion time, following the rest of Europe .
Nicosia has a hot semi-arid climate ( Köppen climate classification BSh ) due to its humble annual precipitation totals and annual temperature scope. [ 55 ] The city experiences long, hot to sweltering, dry summers, and pleasant winters, with most of the rain occurring in winter. Winter precipitation is occasionally accompanied by sleet but rarely by snow. The accumulation of snow is peculiarly rare ( final events occurred in 1950, 1974 and 1997 ). There is occasionally light frost during the winter nights .
|Climate data for Athalassa, Nicosia, elevation: 162 m (1991-2005 normals, extremes 1915–present) (Satellite view)|
|Record high °C (°F)||22.2
|Average high °C (°F)||15.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||10.6
|Average low °C (°F)||5.7
|Record low °C (°F)||−2.0
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||54.7
|Average rainy days ( ≥ 1 millimeter )||7.3||6.5||5.4||3.5||2.7||1.3||0.5||0.1||0.6||2.8||4.7||7.7||43.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||182.9||200.1||238.7||267.0||331.7||369.0||387.5||365.8||312.0||275.9||213.0||170.5||3,314.1|
|Source 1: Meteorological Service (Cyprus)|
|Source 2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)|
South of the green Line.
Ledra Street is in the in-between of the wall city. The street has historically been the busiest shopping street of the capital and adjacent streets lead to the most bouncy depart of the old city with narrow streets, boutiques, bars and art-cafés. The street today is a historic repository on its own. It is about 1 km ( 0.6 michigan ) long and connects the south and north parts of the old city. During the EOKA contend that ran from 1955 to 1959, the street acquired the cozy nickname The Murder Mile in reference to the frequent target of the british colonialists by patriot fighters along its naturally. [ 59 ] [ 60 ] In 1963, during the outbreak of hostilities between the Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities, following the announcement of amendments to the Cypriot Constitution, Turkish Cypriots withdrew to the northern part of Nicosia which became one of the many Turkish Cypriot enclaves which existed throughout the island. Various streets which ran between the northerly and southern separate of the city, including Ledra Street, were blockaded. During the turkish army invasion of Cyprus in 1974, turkish troops occupied northerly Nicosia ( ampere well as the northern separate of Cyprus ). A buffer zone was established across the island along the ceasefire argumentation to separate the northerly Turkish controlled depart of the island, and the south. The buffer zone runs through Ledra Street. After many failed attempts on reaching agreement between the two communities, Ledra Street was reopened on 3 April 2008 .
To the east of Ledra Street, Faneromeni Square was the center of Nicosia before 1974. It hosts a number of historical buildings and monuments including Faneromeni Church, Faneromeni School, Faneromeni Library and the Marble Mausoleum. Faneromeni Church, is a church built in 1872 in the stead of another church located at the same site, constructed with the remains of La Cava castle and a convent. There rest the archbishop and the other bishops who were executed by the Ottomans in the Saray Square during the 1821 revolt. The Palace of the Archbishop can be found at Archbishop Kyprianos Square. Although it seems identical old, it is a fantastic caricature of typical venetian style, built in 1956. future to the palace is the late Gothic Saint John cathedral ( 1665 ) with picturesque fresco. The square leads to Onasagorou Street, another busy shopping street in the historical center. The walls surrounding the old city have three gates. In The Kyrenia Gate which was creditworthy to the transport to the north, and specially Kyrenia, the Famagusta Gate which was responsible for the transportation from Famagusta, Larnaca and Limassol and Karpasia, and the Paphos Gate for ecstasy to the west and specially Paphos. All three gates are well-preserved. [ 61 ]
Pedieos river linear parking lot. The diachronic center is intelligibly present inside the walls, but the modern city has grown beyond. presently, the chief square of the city is Eleftheria ( Freedom ) Square, with the city hall, the post function and the library. The squarely, which is under renovation, connects the previous city with the fresh city where one can find the main denounce streets such as the prestigious Stasikratous Street, Themistokli Dervi Avenue and Makarios Avenue. nicosia is besides known for its fine museums. The Archbishop ‘s Palace contains a Byzantine museum containing the largest collection of religious icons on the island. Leventis Municipal Museum is the alone historical museum of Nicosia and revives the old ways of animation in the capital from ancient times astir to our days. other concern museums include the Folk Art Museum, National Struggle Museum ( witnessing the rebellion against the british administration in the 1950s ), Cyprus Ethnological Museum ( House of Dragoman Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios, eighteenth hundred ) and the Handicrafts Centre. Nicosia besides hosts an armenian archbishopric, a small Buddhist temple, a Maronite archbishopric, and a Roman Catholic church .
north of the green Line.
Sarayönü Square The historical Samanbahçe region A view from the Yenişehir quarter At the center of the wall city lies the Sarayönü Square. The square has been dubbed as “ the heart of Nicosia ” and historically has been the cultural plaza of the turkish Cypriot community. [ 62 ] In the middle of the square stands the venetian Column, known just as “ the Obelisk ” ( “ Dikiltaş ” ) to the locals and symbolic of the nation ‘s government. [ 62 ] The column was brought from the ancient city of Salamis by the Venetians in 1550. [ 63 ] The Girne Avenue connects Sarayönü to the Kyrenia Gate and the İnönü Square in front of it. The avenue has been described as “ the symbol of the wall city ”, and is filled with numerous shops and restaurants. [ 64 ] future to the Ledra Street checkpoint is the Arasta sphere. The area was pedestrianized in 2013 and is home to a network of historic shopping streets, reflecting an easterly patronize tradition with food and traditional items. [ 65 ] Nearby Büyük Han, the largest caravansary in the island and considered to be one of the finest buildings in Cyprus, was built in 1572 by the Ottomans and functions as a cultural center. [ 66 ] [ 67 ] To the west of the Girne Avenue lies the Samanbahçe vicinity, built in the nineteenth hundred by the government, considered to be the first gear exercise of social house in the island. still a residential area, the neighborhood is considered to be one of the best representations of the Cypriot acculturation. [ 68 ] Another central point in the wall city is the Selimiye Mosque, originally built as the St. Sophia Cathedral. The mosque is the foreman religious plaza in Northern Cyprus. It was built between 1209 and 1228 by the Latin Church of Cyprus, in a Gothic style resembling french cathedrals. [ 69 ] Next to the mosque is the Bedesten, a large greek church in the Byzantine and Gothic styles, built in the fourteenth century. It was used as a marketplace in the Ottoman era. today, it is used as a cultural plaza where diverse cultural activities such as concerts and festivals take place. [ 70 ] [ 71 ] The quarters of Nicosia outside the wall city are more roomy than the wall city, with wider roads and junctions. These areas are characterized by multi-floor concrete buildings. In the outskirts of the city, a count large and imposing villas have been built that belong to the in-between and upper-classes. [ 72 ] The Dereboyu Avenue serves as the modern heart of the northerly share and is its center of entertainment .
Politics and administration.
government of the metropolitan area.
presidential Palace in Strovolos area . Greater Nicosia Greater Nicosia is administered by several municipalities. In the center is the city municipality of Nicosia itself ( see below ). early municipalities are Strovolos, Lakatamia, Latsia, Aglandjia, Engomi, Agios Dhometios and the newly formed ( as of 2011 ) Yeri & Tseri. The population of the conurbation is 300,000 ( 2011 census, plus turkish Cypriot administered census of 2006 ) of which 100,000 populate within the Nicosia municipal area. Because Nicosia municipality has separate communal municipal administrations, the population of Strovolos ( 67,904 ( 2011 Census ) ) is actually the largest of all the local authorities in Greater Nicosia. Within Nicosia municipality, most of the population resides in the more recently annexed outlying areas of Kaimakli, Pallouriotissa, Omorfita and Ayii Omoloyites. There is no metropolitan authority as such for Greater Nicosia and versatile roles, responsibilities and functions for the wide area are undertaken by the Nicosia District administration, bodies such as the Nicosia Water Board and, to some extent, Nicosia municipality. The Nicosia Water Board supplies water to the come municipalities : Nicosia, Strovolos, Aglandjia, Engomi, Ay. Dometios, Latsia, Geri and Tseri. The circuit board consists of three persons nominated by the Council of each municipality, plus three members appointed by the government, who are normally the District Officer of Nicosia District, who chairs the Board, the Accountant General and the Director of the Water Department. The board besides supply Anthoupolis and Ergates, for whom the politics provide representatives. Thus the control panel is in the majority controlled by the municipalities of Greater Nicosia in providing this full of life local anesthetic politics serve. [ 73 ] The Nicosia Sewerage Board, is besides majority controlled by the municipalities of Greater Nicosia. It is chaired ex officio by the Mayor of Nicosia and consists of members chosen by the municipalities of Nicosia ( 6 members ), Strovolos ( 5 members ), Aglandjia ( 2 members ), Lakatamia ( 2 members ), Ay. Dometios ( 2 members ), Engomi ( 2 members ), Latsia ( 1 member ). The sewage treatment plant is at Mia Milia. The Nicosia Sewerage System serves a population of approximately 140,000 and an area of 20 km2 ( 8 sq michigan ). approximately 30 % of the inflowing is contributed by the turkish Cypriot Side. [ 74 ] Public transport is not controlled by the local authorities, but comes under the Nicosia District administration, which is an sleeve of the Ministry of the Interior. Transport services ( chiefly bus and taxi ) are provided by individual operators such as OSEL. [ 75 ] In late 2019 the condense for providing ecstasy services in the district of Nicosia was awarded via offer to a private consortium which was expected to take over the system on 5 July 2020. [ 76 ] [ 77 ]
Nicosia Municipality construction at Eleftheria Square The Nicosia Municipality is responsible for all the municipal duties within the wall city and the immediately adjacent areas. The Constitution states that versatile main government buildings and headquarters must be situated within the Nicosia municipal boundaries. [ 78 ] however distinguish municipalities are prescribed by the constitution for in the five largest towns, including Nicosia, [ 79 ] and in the case of Nicosia the separate administration was established in 1958. The turkish Municipal Committees ( Temporary Provisions ) Law, 1959 [ 80 ] established a municipal agency run by a “ turkish Municipal Committee ”, defined as “ the consistency of persons set up on or after the first day of July, 1958, in the towns of Nicosia, Limassol, Famagusta, Larnaca and Paphos by the turkish inhabitants thence for the aim of performing municipal functions within the municipal limits of such towns ” .The Nicosia Turkish Municipality, founded in 1958, carries out municipal duties in the northern and north-western part of city. [ 81 ] The remaining areas, in the south and east of the city, are administered by Nicosia Municipality .
Nicosia Turkish Municipality.
Nicosia Turkish Municipal build The first undertake to establish a Nicosia Turkish Municipality was made in 1958. In October 1959, the british Colonial Administration passed the turkish Municipality Committees law. In 1960 with the announcement of independence of Cyprus, the Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus gave Turkish Cypriots the properly to establish their own municipality. [ 82 ] [ 83 ] [ 84 ] As negotiations between the two sides to establish separate municipalities failed in 1962, implementing legislation was never passed. [ 85 ] [ 86 ] Since the complete division of Nicosia following the turkish Invasion in 1974, the Nicosia Turkish Municipality has become the de facto local agency of northerly Nicosia. The Nicosia Turkish Municipality is a extremity the Union of Cyprus Turkish Municipalities. [ 87 ] The mayor is Mehmet Harmancı from the Communal Democracy Party .
other municipalities in Greater Nicosia.
Until 1986 there were no suburban municipalities. then, following the procedures in the Municipal Law 111/1985, Strovolos, Engomi, Ay. Dometios, Aglandjia, Latsia and Lakatamia were erected into municipalities. [ 88 ] Each municipal council has the number of members described in the Municipal Law 111/1985 depending on the population figures. All members of the council are elected directly by the people for a menstruation of 5 years .
administrative divisions and demographics.
administrative divisions ( 2011 Census ) Nicosia within the city limits is divided into 29 administrative units, according to the latest census. This unit is termed in English as quarter, neighbourhood, parish, enoria or mahalla. These units are : Ayios Andreas ( once Tophane ), Trypiotis, Nebethane, Tabakhane, Phaneromeni, Ayios Savvas, Omerie, Ayios Antonios ( St. Anthony ), St. John, Taht-el-kale, Chrysaliniotissa, Ayios Kassianos ( Kafesli ), Kaïmakli, Panayia, St Constantine & Helen, Ayioi Omoloyites, Arab Ahmet, Yeni Jami, Omorfita, Ibrahim Pasha, Mahmut Pasha, Abu Kavouk, St. Luke, Abdi Chavush, Iplik Pazar and Korkut Effendi, Ayia Sophia, Haydar Pasha, Karamanzade, [ 89 ] and Yenişehir/Neapolis. [ 90 ]
The municipality of Strovolos, established in 1986, is the second largest municipal authority in Cyprus in terms of population after Limassol and encompasses the southerly suburb of the capital immediately adjacent to Nicosia municipality. [ 91 ] Lakatamia, Latsia, Geri and Aglandjia are early separate municipalities in the Nicosia metropolitan area. The town of Gönyeli is nowadays conurbated with the northerly suburbs. previously a village authority, it now functions as a municipality [ 92 ] within the lapp area [ 93 ] The suburbs immediately to the north of the city have not been erected into municipalities. The village agency of Hamitköy ( besides known as Hamid Mandres ) was heavily urbanize [ 94 ] and was included within the borders of Nicosia Turkish Municipality [ 95 ] as a Nicosia vicinity headed by a muhtar. [ 96 ] Ortakeuy Village authority [ 97 ] has similarly been redefined as a neighborhood of Nicosia Turkish Municipality .
St John the Apostile Church Holy Cross Church historically Nicosia is a melting pot harmonizing multiple religious establishments, denominations, churches, mosques, synagogues, etc. traditionally nicosia hosts Greek Orthodox churches, armenian Apostolic churches, a russian Orthodox church, Latin Catholic, Maronite Catholic, Anglican churches, evangelical churches ampere well as mosques and synagogues .
armenian Apostolic Church.
armenian Apostolic Church in Nicosia One of the oldest armenian churches known as the Benedictine Abbey of Our lady of Tyre, was founded in the thirteenth century as a star convent following the fall of Jerusalem. In 1308, the Lusignan king, Henry II of Jerusalem, repaired the church after it was destroyed by an earthquake. As many of the nuns were armenian in origin, it came under the armenian church before 1504. [ 98 ] Since 1963, the church has been located in North Nicosia, under Turkish Cypriot administration. The church suffered the collapse of some parts and a big deterioration of condition public treasury 2007, when the restoration work began. [ 99 ] The renovation was completed in 2013 [ 100 ] and won the EU Prize For Cultural Heritage ( Europa Nostra Award ) in 2015. [ 101 ] With the help of the World Council of Churches, the Church of Westphalia, the Cyprus government and the faithful, a new church was built in Strovolos, besides called “ Sourp Asdvadzadzin ”. Its foundation stone was laid on 25 September 1976 by Archbishop Makarios III and Archbishop Nerses Pakhdigian. It was formally inaugurated on 22 November 1981 by Catholicos of Cilicia Khoren I and Coadjutor Catholicos of Cilicia Karekin II, in the presence of Archbishop Chrysostomos I, Bishop Zareh Aznavorian and Representative Dr. Antranik L. Ashdjian .
Maronite Catholic Church.
Maronite Church in Nicosia The Maronite community is a traditional residential district in Nicosia. The archeparchy extends its legal power over all the faithful Maronites of the island of Cyprus. Its arcieparchial seat is the city of Nicosia, where is located the Our lady of Grace Cathedral ( Nicosia ). The archeparchy at the end of 2013 out of a population of 838,897 people had 10,400 baptized, corresponding to 1.2 % of the total. Its district is divided into 12 parishes. Our Lady of Grace Cathedral is the independent Maronite church service of the city of Nicosia, in Cyprus, and is the cathedral of the Maronite Catholic Archeparchy of Cyprus. The first cathedral was dedicated to St. John, but during the Ottoman occupation it was turned into a mosque. The lebanese Maronite community erected the church of Santa Croce, belated entrusted to the Franciscans, and the current church of Our dame of Grace is near to the Franciscan church. In 1960, the seat of the parsonage and the besiege buildings were built. [ 102 ] On 6 June 2010 Pope Benedict XVI, the first pope to make an papal trip to the island, visited the cathedral of Nicosia. [ 103 ]
russian Orthodox Church.
russian Orthodox Church nicosia hosts the largest russian Orthodox church in Cyprus located in Episkopeio The church of the Apostle Andrew and all russian saints is located near the village. The church is constructed in traditional russian orthodox vogue. The construction of the church begun in October 2015 and was finished on 7 July 2016. Its 5 domes, including the central one that weighs 7 tons, were made in Saint Petersburg and were installed by russian specialists. The church is the beginning and alone russian church in Cyprus that has gilded domes. A romanian Orthodox Church is located on the neighbor diagram of the russian Church .
anglican Church in Nicosia The church of St. Paul was built in 1893 when Cyprus was a protectorate of the british Empire. The influence of politics on computer architecture is apparent by the structural elements of the build, which is evocative of an english parish church. The christian church today is character of the Diocese of Cyprus and the Gulf .
greek Evangelical church service.
greek Evangelical Church of Nicosia The greek Evangelical Church of Nicosia is a relatively mod architecture serving the local Protestant community. Along with special hours dedicated to services of the greek Evangelical community, it serves as a idolize center field of local Protestants of early nationalities, such as armenian, American, Romanian, Korean, Chinese, etc. It is located on Gladstone Street. [ 104 ]
armenian Evangelical church.
armenian Evangelical Church of Nicosia The first armenian Evangelicals in Cyprus came after the arrival of the british in July 1878. As they were not committed, and very few, they promptly became associated with the Mother Church ( armenian Apostolic Church ), such as Apisoghom Utidjian, the official state documents translator – and the son of Stepan Utidjian, one of the original founders of the armenian Evangelical Church -, who served as Chairman of the Nicosia parish council for 30 years. With the inflow of more Protestants, armenian Evangelicals became consort with the Reformed Presbyterian Church a early as 1887. Although the main centres were Nicosia and Larnaca, gatherings were occasionally held in Limassol, Famagusta and Amiandos. There was besides a humble armenian Evangelical church, located in Mahmoud Pasha street, in the Turkish-occupied separate of the wall city of Nicosia—behind the old american Academy build, near the Arab Ahmed mosque. Prior to its erection, armenian Evangelicals used to worship God at the Reformed Presbyterian church on Apostolos Varnavas street, opposite the old Powerhouse and behind the build of the Holy Archbishopric of Cyprus. The church – a vision already since the early 1930s – was finally built thanks to the enterprise of curate Yohanna Der Megerditchian, with the fiscal contribution of the Reformed Presbyterian Church and the armenian Evangelical faithful ; its architect was Dickran H. Davidian. Its basis gem was laid on 28 July 1946 by pastor Yohanna five hundred Megerditchian, who dedicated it on 1 July 1947. On the lower separate of the correct wall to the side of the entrance there is an dedication in Armenian .
Converted church possibly the most iconic religious architecture of Nicosia is the Cathedral of Saint Sophia, besides known as the Agia Sophia of Nicosia, which was constructed in the year of 1326 as a Catholic church. It was converted into a mosque and it is located in North Nicosia. It has historically been the main mosque of the city. As a mosque it is known as the Selimiye Mosque which is housed in the largest and oldest surviving Gothic church service in Cyprus ( inside dimensions : 66 meter × 21 meter or 217 by 69 feet ) possibly constructed on the locate of an earlier Byzantine church service. [ 105 ] During the 50-day Ottoman siege of the city in 1570, the cathedral provided recourse for a big number of people. When the city fell on 9 September, Francesco Contarini, the Bishop of Paphos, delivered the last christian sermon in the build, in which he asked for divine help and exhorted the people. The cathedral was stormed by Ottoman soldiers, who broke the doorway and killed the bishop along with others. They smashed or threw out christian items, such as furniture and ornaments in the cathedral [ 106 ] and destroyed the choir deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the nave. [ 107 ] then, they washed the interior of the mosque to make it ready for the first Friday entreaty that it would host on 15 September, which was attended by the commander Lala Mustafa Pasha and saw the official conversion of the cathedral into a mosque. [ 106 ] During the same year, the two minarets were added, a well as Islamic features such as the mihrab and the minbar. The first imam of the mosque was Moravizade Ahmet Efendi, who hailed from the Morea province of the Ottoman Empire. [ 109 ] All imams maintained the custom of climbing the stairs to the minbar before Friday sermons while leaning on a sword used during the seduction of Nicosia to signify that Nicosia was captured by conquest. [ 110 ] Following its conversion, the mosque became the property of the Sultan Selim Foundation, which was creditworthy for maintaining it. other donors formed a number of foundations to help with the alimony. Okçuzade Mehmed Paşa, a governor of Cyprus in the sixteenth hundred, donated a shop to provide income for the Sultan Selim Foundation ; early donations include estates in the countryside and other shops. The foundation employed trustees ( mütevelli ) to look after the funds and transferred 40,000 akçe per annum to Medina in late sixteenth century. [ 112 ] During the Ottoman period, it was the largest mosque in the unharmed island, and was used hebdomadally by the Ottoman governor, administrators and elect for the Friday prayers. In the deep eighteenth century, a big procession that consisted of the leading officials in the front on horseback, followed by junior-grade officials on foot, came to the mosque every Friday .
Omeriye Mosque in Nicosia historically Nicosia ( south and north ) hosts over 15 mosques, either in the first place constructed as such or converted from a church. The Ömeriye Mosque, once known as the augustinian Church of Saint Mary is a mosque in the wall city of Nicosia on the island of Cyprus, presently located in the south section of Nicosia. [ 113 ] Following the turkish invasion of Cyprus, the mosque gained significance as one of the most significant sites of Muslim worship in the non-Muslim section of the island and the city. [ 113 ] presently, the mosque is functioning and afford for both worshippers and visitors. [ 114 ] [ 115 ] once, the site of the mosque was occupied by the augustinian Church of Saint Mary, which dated second to the fourteenth hundred. During the Ottoman-Venetian War of 1570-73, the church was first heavily damaged during the siege of Nicosia in 1570, and was finally levelled after the war. [ 114 ] After the turkish seduction of Cyprus, Lala Mustafa Pasha, the Ottoman commander, ordered a mosque to be built on the locate of the former church, [ 114 ] based on a democratic belief that Umar, second caliph of Islam, was buried at this site in seventh century. [ 115 ] According to Turkish Cypriot folklore, the Ömeriye Mosque is the first mosque where Turks prayed on the island following its conquest in 1571. [ 116 ]
The World of Cyprus, an acrylic painting with a total length of 17.5 meters by Adamantios Diamantis in , an acrylic paint with a entire length of 17.5 meters by Adamantios Diamantis in Leventis Gallery The Cyprus Museum in Nicosia is the largest and oldest archaeological museum in Cyprus. In old Nicosia, the Ethnological Museum ( Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios Mansion ) is the most authoritative model of urban architecture of the last hundred of Ottoman domination which survives in previous Nicosia. today, the mansion which was awarded the Europa Nostra loot for its admonitory renovation cultivate, functions as a museum where a collection of artifacts from the Byzantine, Medieval and Ottoman periods are displayed. other museums in Nicosia include the Cyprus Museum of Natural History and the Leventis Municipal Museum of Nicosia and Von World Pens Hall in the south. In the union, the Dervish Pasha Mansion, similar in architecture to the Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios Mansion, serves as an ethnological museum, displaying Ottoman and archaeological artifacts. [ 117 ] other museums include the Lusignan House, [ 118 ] the Mevlevi Tekke Museum, associated with the faction of the Whirling Dervishes, [ 119 ] and the Lapidary Museum. [ 120 ] art galleries in Nicosia include the Leventis Gallery, which hosts over 800 paintings from Cypriot, Greek or european artists. Nicosia offers a wide assortment of melodious and theatrical events, organized either by the municipality or mugwump organizations. Halls and theatres used for this aim include :
- The Cyprus National Theatre, which contains two performance spaces:
- the 550-seat Lyric Theater with a bold exterior but an intimate theatrical environment. Its design minimizes the distance from actor to audience;
- the 150-seat New Theater, which is an open-ended workshop space, with simple galleries around the room. The stage can be set in the center, at the ends, or to one side of the room, and the space can be opened to the private garden beyond.
- The Pallas Cinema-Theatre which was renovated from a near derelict state in 2008.
- Theatro Ena
- Maskarini Theatre
- Dionysos Theatre
- Melina Mercouri Hall
Nicosia ‘s universities besides boast an impressive align of facilities, and many churches and outdoor spaces are used to host cultural events. [ citation needed ] The Near East University hosts the Atatürk Cultural and Conference Centre, with 700 seats. [ 129 ] nicosia hosted the Miss Universe 2000 pageant. [ 130 ] In June 2011, Nicosia launched a failed political campaign to become the european capital of Culture for 2017. [ 131 ]
Nicosia has a large scholar community as it is the seat of five universities, the University of Cyprus ( UCY ), the University of Nicosia, the European University Cyprus, the Open University of Cyprus and Frederick University. nicosia is besides family to the one of the largest historic armenian schools, the Melkonian Educational Institute established in 1926 which operated until 2005. The Melkonian Institution was created as an orphanage in the consequence of the armenian Genocide of 1915–1923 .
watch of Nicosia Financial Quarter nicosia is the fiscal and business kernel of Cyprus. The city hosts the headquarters of all Cypriot banks namely the early Cyprus Popular Bank ( besides known as Laiki Bank ), Bank of Cyprus, the Hellenic Bank. Further, the Central Bank of Cyprus is located in the Acropolis sphere of the Cypriot capital. A phone number of international businesses base their Cypriot headquarter in Nicosia, such as the big four audit firms PWC, Deloitte, KPMG and Ernst & Young. International technology companies such as NCR and TSYS have their regional headquarters in Nicosia. The city is besides home to local fiscal newspapers such as the Financial Mirror and Stockwatch. Cyprus Airways had its question offices in the entrance of Makariou Avenue. [ 132 ] According to a holocene UBS surveil in August 2011, Nicosia is the wealthiest per caput city of the eastern Mediterranean and the tenth richest city in the earth by purchasing power in 2011. [ 133 ]
devious on the A1 highway in Nicosia Nicosia is linked with other major cities in Cyprus via a advanced expressway network. The A1 connects Nicosia with Limassol in the south with the A6 going from Limassol onto Paphos. The A2 links Nicosia with the south easterly city of Larnaca with the A3 going from Larnaca to Ayia Napa. The A9 connects Nicosia to the west Nicosia district villages and the Troodos mountains. The capital is besides linked to the 2 international airports : Larnaca International Airport and Paphos International Airport. ( Nicosia International Airport ceased commercial operations in 1974 ; it is located within the greens Line buffer partition, and is used as the headquarters of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus. ) Public conveyance within the city is served by a new busbar service. Bus services in Nicosia are run by OSEL. [ 134 ] In the northern part, the ship’s company of LETTAŞ provides this service. [ 135 ] Many taxi companies operate in Nicosia. Fares are regulated by police and taxi drivers are obliged to use a taximeter. In 2010, as part of the Nicosia Integrated Mobility Plan, a pre-feasibility analyze for a proposed streetcar network has taken put and sponsored by the Ministry of Communications and Works. The study compared two scenarios, with and without the operation of a tramway in terms of emit polluting loads. [ 136 ] In 2011, the Nicosia Municipality introduced the Bike in Action scheme, a bicycle sharing system which covers the Greater Nicosia area. The schema is run by the Inter-Municipal Bicycle Company of Nicosia ( DEPL ). [ 137 ] There is no aim network in Cyprus. Plans for the initiation of an intercity railway are under way. The inaugural railway line on the island was the cyprus Government Railway which operated from 1905 to 1951. It was closed down due to fiscal reasons. [ 138 ]
Field golf club tennis courts football is the most democratic fun in Cyprus, and Nicosia is home of three major teams of the island ; APOEL, Omonia and Olympiakos. APOEL and Omonia are dominant allele in Cypriot football. There are besides many other football clubs in Nicosia and the suburb. The city besides hosts Çetinkaya, Yenicami, Küçük Kaymaklı and Gönyeli, four of the major turkish Cypriot clubs. Nicosia is besides home to AGBU Ararat Nicosia FC, the island ‘s only armenian FC. nicosia is besides the home plate for many clubs for basketball, handball and other sports. APOEL and Omonia have basketball and volleyball sections and Keravnos is one of the major basketball teams of the island. The gymnastic Club Pancypria ( GSP ), the owner of the Neo GSP Stadium, is one of the major athletics clubs of the island. besides, all teams in the Futsal First Division are from Nicosia. In accession, two handball teams, european University and SPE Strovolou, are located in Nicosia. Nicosia has some of the biggest venues in the island ; the Neo GSP Stadium, with capacity of 23,400, is the home for the national team, APOEL, Olympiakos and Omonia. Makario Stadium has a capability of 16,000. In the north, the Nicosia Atatürk Stadium has a capacity of 28,000. [ 139 ] The Eleftheria Indoor Hall is the biggest basketball stadium in Cyprus, with capacity of 6,500 seats and is the home for the national team, APOEL and Omonia. The Lefkotheo indoor arena is the volleyball stadium for APOEL and Omonia. In Nicosia in 2010 and 2012. took place Nicosia Marathon, organized by Athanasios Ktorides Foundation, and attracted more than 7,000 participants. [ 140 ] [ 141 ] nicosia hosted the 2000 ISSF World Cup Final shoot events for the shotgun. besides the city hosted two basketball events ; the European Saporta Cup in 1997 and the 2005 FIBA Europe All Star Game in the Eleftheria Indoor Hall. Another consequence which was hosted in Nicosia were the Games of the Small States of Europe in 1989 and 2009 .
Twin towns – baby cities.
Nicosia is twinned with : [ 142 ]
Nicosia besides cooperates with : [ 142 ]
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