Nicosia – Wikipedia

das kapital of Cyprus and Northern Cyprus ( de facto )

capital city
Nicosia ( NIK-ə-SEE-ə ; greek : Λευκωσία, romanized : Lefkosía [ lefkoˈsi.a ] ; turkish : Lefkoşa [ lefˈkoʃa ] ; armenian : Նիկոսիա, romanized : Nikosia ; Cypriot Arabic : Nikusiya [ 3 ] [ 4 ] ) is the largest city, das kapital, and seat of government of Cyprus. It is located near the concentrate of the Mesaoria plain, on the banks of the River Pedieos.

According to Greek mythology, Nicosia ( Lefkosia in Greek ) was a siren, one of the daughters of Acheloos and Melpomene and its name translates as “ White State ” or city of White Gods. nicosia is the southeasternmost of all EU member states ‘ capitals. It has been continuously inhabited for over 4,500 years and has been the das kapital of Cyprus since the tenth century. The greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities of Nicosia segregated into the south and north of the city respectively in early 1964, following the crusade of the Cyprus crisis of 1963–64 that broke out in the city. This separation became a militarised border between the Republic of Cyprus and Northern Cyprus after Turkey invaded the island of Cyprus in 1974, occupying the north of the island, including northerly Nicosia. Today North Nicosia is the das kapital of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a state recognized entirely by Turkey. apart from its legislative and administrative functions, Nicosia has established itself as the island ‘s fiscal capital and its main international business center. [ 5 ] In 2018, Nicosia was the thirty-second richest city in the world in relative buying power. [ 6 ]

toponymy [edit ]

The earliest mention of Nicosia is in the clay prism of the assyrian neo-aramaic king Esarhaddon in 672 BC. This is a mention to the city state of Ledra located on the site of Nicosia, and the city is named “ Lidir ”. The name Ledra and variations ( such as Ledroi ) remained in habit angstrom late as 392 AD, when it was used in writing by Saint Jerome. however, that text besides refers the city as “ Leucotheon ”, and early on christian sources of this menstruation are the first to use like variations of the name Lefkosia ( e.g. Leuteonos ). [ 7 ] The origin of the diagnose “ Lefkosia ” is considered by scholars to be a “ toponymic puzzle ”. The name is recorded in the majority of Byzantine sources as “ Leukousia ”, and it is accepted in literature that the name “ most probably ” derives from the greek idiom “ leuke ousia ” ( “ white estate of the realm ” ). [ 8 ]

history [edit ]

Ancient times [edit ]

Nicosia has been in continuous habitation since the begin of the Bronze Age 2500 years BC, when the first inhabitants settled in the fertile plain of Mesaoria. [ 9 ] Nicosia late became a city state known as Ledra or Ledrae, one of the twelve kingdoms of ancient Cyprus built by Achaeans after the end of the Trojan War. [ citation needed ] Remains of old Ledra today can be found in the Ayia Paraskevi hill in the south east of the city. only one king of Ledra is known : Onasagoras. The kingdom of Ledra was destroyed early. Under assyrian akkadian rule of Cyprus, Onasagoras was recorded as paying tribute to Esarhaddon of Assyria in 672 BC. By 330 BC, Ledra was recorded to be a small unimportant town. [ 10 ] It is thought that the colonization was economically and politically dependent on the nearby town of Chytri. [ 11 ] The main activity of the town inhabitants was farming. During this era, Ledra did not have the huge emergence that the other Cypriot coastal towns had, which was primarily based on trade. [ 12 ]

Ancient and Medieval Roman times [edit ]

In Byzantine times, the town was besides referred to as Λευκωσία ( Lefkosia ) or as Καλληνίκησις ( Kallenikesis ). In the fourth century AD, the township became the seat of diocese, with bishop Saint Tryphillius ( Trifillios ), a student of Saint Spyridon. [ 13 ] Archaeological attest indicates that the town regained much of its earlier significance in the early christian period, [ 7 ] and the presence of two or three basilica with opus sectile decorations, along with marbles decorated with high easing indicate the presence of a relatively comfortable and sophisticate christian company. [ 14 ] After the end of Salamis, the existing capital of Cyprus, by arab raids in 647, along with across-the-board damage to other coastal settlements, the economy of the island became much more inward-looking and inland towns gained relative meaning. Nicosia benefited from this and functioned as an exit of the agricultural products from its backwoods, the Mesaoria plain. It further was at an advantageous place due to its ample water issue. As such, the town developed adequate for the Byzantine Empire to choose Nicosia as the capital of the island about 965, when Cyprus rejoined the Byzantine Empire. [ 15 ] The Byzantines moved the island ‘s administration seat to Nicosia chiefly for security system reasons as coastal towns were often suffering from raids. From that point on it has remained as the capital of Cyprus. Nicosia was the buttocks of the Byzantine governor of Cyprus ; the last Byzantine governor was Isaac Komnenos, who declared himself emperor butterfly of the island and ruled the island from 1183 to 1191. [ 16 ] Testimony adenine late as 1211 indicates that Nicosia was not a wall city at that decimal point and thus that the Byzantines did not build a city wall, thinking that the city ‘s inland location would be sufficient for defense purposes. The Byzantines did, however, build a relatively fallible fort within the city. [ 17 ] The economy under Byzantine dominion consisted largely of the trade of agrarian goods, but the town besides produced lavishness items and metalware due to the presence of the imperial administration. [ 18 ]

Medieval times [edit ]

On his way to the Holy Land during the Third Crusade in 1187, Richard I of England ‘s fleet was plagued by storms. He himself stopped first at Crete and then at Rhodes. Three ships continued on, one of which was carrying Joan of England, Queen of Sicily and Berengaria of Navarre, Richard ‘s fiancee. Two of the ships were wrecked off Cyprus, but the ship hold Joan and Berengaria made it safely to Limassol. Joan refused to come ashore, fearing she would be captured and held hostage by Isaac Komnenos of Cyprus, who hated all Franks. Her ship saturday at anchor for a fully workweek ahead Richard last arrived on 8 May. Outraged at the discussion of his baby and his future bridget, Richard invaded. [ 19 ] [ citation needed ] Richard laid siege to Nicosia, last met and defeated Isaac Komnenos at Tremetousia and became ruler of the island, but sold it to the Knights Templar. The frankish govern of Cyprus started from 1192 and lasted until 1489. During this time, Nicosia was the capital of the medieval Kingdom of Cyprus, the seat of Lusignan kings, the Latin Church and the Frankish presidency of the island. During the Frankish rule, the walls of the city were built along with many other palaces and buildings, including the gothic St. Sophia Cathedral. The grave of the Lusignan kings can be found there. The exonym Nicosia appeared with the arrival of the Lusignans. The french-speaking Crusaders either could not, or did not care to, pronounce the name Lefkosia, and tended to say “ Nicosie ” translated into italian and then internationally known as “ Nicosia ”. [ 20 ]
Image of map of Nicosia, created in 1597 Map of Nicosia in Cyprus, created in 1597 In 1373/4, Nicosia was occupied and ravaged by the Republic of Genoa and in 1426 from the Mamluk Sultanate. [ 21 ] In 1489, when Cyprus came under the rule of the Republic of Venice, Nicosia became their administrative center and the seat of the Republic. The venetian Governors saw it as a necessity for all the cities of Cyprus to be fortified due to the Ottoman threat. [ 22 ] In 1567 Venetians built the new fortifications of Nicosia, which are well-preserved until today, demolishing the old walls built by the Franks angstrom well as other important buildings of the Frankish era including the King ‘s Palace, early individual palaces and churches and monasteries of both Orthodox and Latin Christians. [ 23 ] The new walls took the shape of a star topology with eleven bastions. The design of the bastion is more desirable for artillery and a better manipulate for the defenders. The walls have three gates, to the North Kyrenia Gate, to the west Paphos Gate and to the east Famagusta Gate. [ 23 ] The river Pedieos used to flow through the Venetian walled city. In 1567 it was late diverted outside onto the newly built moat for strategic reasons, due to the expected Ottoman attack. [ 24 ]

Ottoman rule [edit ]

see of Nicosia in 1878 On 1 July 1570, the city came under the rule of the Ottomans. On 22 July, Piyale Pasha having captured Paphos, Limassol and Larnaca marched his united states army towards Nicosia and laid siege to the city. [ 25 ] The city managed to last 40 days under siege until its capitulation on 9 September 1570. The fib of the Cypriot martyr Arnaude de Rocas dates from the descend of Nicosia. Some 20,000 residents died during the siege and every church service, public build, and palace was looted. [ 26 ] Nicosia had an estimated population of 21,000 before the Ottoman conquest, and based on the Ottoman census data of 1572, the population had been reduced to 1,100–1,200. The devastation of the city was so extensive that for the few years after the conquest, a number of villages in the island had a larger population than Nicosia. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] The main latin churches were converted into mosques, such as the conversion of the Saint Sophia Cathedral. nicosia was the seat of the Pasha, the Greek Archbishop, the Dragoman and the Qadi. The Palazzo del Governo of venetian times became the seat of the Pasha, the governor of Cyprus, and the construct was renamed as the Konak or Seraglio ( Saray ). The public square external was known as Seraglio Square or Sarayonu ( literally front of the Saray ), as it is known to the stage day. The saray was demolished in 1904 and the present obstruct of Government Offices built on the web site. [ 29 ] When the newly settled turkish population arrived they broadly lived in the union of the old riverbed. greek Cypriots remained concentrated in the confederacy, where the Archbishopric of the Orthodox Church was built. other cultural minority groups such as the Armenians and Latins came to be settled near the western introduction into the city at Paphos Gate. [ 30 ] The names of the 12 quarters into which Nicosia was originally divided at the prison term of the Ottoman Conquest are said to be derived from the 12 generals in command of divisions of the Ottoman united states army at the time. Each general being posted to a one-fourth, that quarter ( with two exceptions ) was known by his name as follows :

  1. General Ibrahim Pasha.
  2. General Mahmoud Pasha.
  3. General Ak Kavuk Pasha. (This is a nickname meaning “white cap”.)
  4. General Koukoud Effendi.
  5. General Arab Ahmed Pasha.
  6. General Abdi Pasha, known as Chavush (Sergeant) from which rank he was probably promoted.
  7. General Haydar Pasha.
  8. General Karamanzade (son of a Caramanian, other names not given).
  9. General Yahya Pasha (now known as the Phaneromeni Quarter).
  10. General Daniel Pasha (name of quarter changed subsequently to Omerie in honour of the Caliph Omar who stayed there for a night when in Cyprus).
  11. Tophane (Artillery Barracks)
  12. Nebetkhane, meaning police station or quarters of the patrol.[29]

The names of the generals in instruction of the final two-quarters have been lost : late the number of neighbourhoods was increased to 24. Each vicinity was organised around a mosque or a church service, where chiefly the respective Muslim and Christian communities lived. [ 31 ]

british rule [edit ]

Painting, hoisting the British flat in Nicosia Hoisting the british flag in Nicosia

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1881 11,536 —    
1891 12,515 +8.5%
1901 14,481 +15.7%
1911 16,052 +10.8%
1921 11,831 −26.3%
1931 23,324 +97.1%
1946 34,485 +47.9%
1960 45,629 +32.3%
Source for 1881–1960.[32]

opinion of Nicosia in 1914 nicosia came under the rule of the United Kingdom on 5 July 1878 in consequence of the Cyprus Convention [ why? ]. [ 33 ] The previous Ottoman administrative headquarters ( the Saray ) was replaced in 1904 by a new build containing Law Courts, the Land Registry, and the Forestry, Customs, and Nicosia Commissioner ‘s Offices. [ 29 ] Adjacent was the Nicosia Police headquarters, while face-to-face were the General Post Office and the Telegraph Office. [ 34 ] A venetian Column, previously in a fence court near the Saray, [ 35 ] was restored on a new site in the summer of 1915 in the middle of Saray Square. The Nicosia column was presumably erected in compliment to the reigning Doge Francesco Donati about the year 1550. [ 29 ] just after the british Occupation a Municipal Council was constituted in Nicosia in 1882 for the general administration of public affairs within the city and for a sealed area without the walls, under the presidency of a Mayor. [ 29 ] The inaugural municipal offices were in Municipality Square ( now the central municipal market ), but in 1944 the offices were transferred temporarily to the d’Avila bastion and in 1952 this was made permanent wave with a decisiveness to renovate the building. [ 36 ]
Extensions to the Nicosia municipal area Extensions to the Nicosia municipal area In 1923 the municipal limits were extended promote ( see map ) and this newly area was divided among several of the existing intramural Neighbourhoods. [ 37 ] In 1938 the boundary was extended to the deliver limits in the west and to the boundaries of Ayii Omoloyites, Palouriotissa, Kaimakli and Omorfita. [ 38 ] In 1944 the village assurance of Ayii Omoloyites was absorbed, then, soon after independence, Palouriotissa, Kaimakli and Omorfita were annexed to the city in 1968. [ 39 ] In 1955 an armed struggle against british rule began aiming to unite the island with Greece, Enosis. The clamber was led by EOKA, a greek Cypriot nationalist military resistance organization, [ 40 ] [ 41 ] and supported by the huge majority of greek Cypriots. The fusion with Greece failed and alternatively the independence of Cyprus was declared in 1960. During the menstruation of the fight, Nicosia was the scene of fierce protests against british principle. [ 42 ] [ 43 ]

independence and division [edit ]

Scheme for new pedestrianized streets in old Nicosia implemented after 2004 In 1960, Nicosia became the das kapital of the Republic of Cyprus, a department of state established by the Greek and Turkish Cypriots. In 1963, the greek Cypriot side proposed amendments to the constitution, which were rejected by the turkish Cypriot community. [ 44 ] During the consequence of this crisis, on 21 December 1963, intercommunal violence broke out between Greek and Turkish Cypriots. Nicosia was divided into Greek and Turkish Cypriot quarters with the greens Line, named after the tinge of the pen used by the United Nations military officer to draw the credit line on a map of the city. [ 45 ] This resulted in turkish Cypriots bow out from the politics, and following more intercommunal violence in 1964, a numeral of turkish Cypriots moved to the turkish quarter of Nicosia, causing serious overcrowding. [ 46 ] On 15 July 1974, there was an attempted coup d’état led by the greek military military junta to unite the island with Greece. The coup d’etat ousted president of the united states Makarios III and replaced him with pro- enosis nationalist Nikos Sampson. [ 47 ] On 20 July 1974, the coup d’etat d’état precipitated the invasion of the island by the turkish army. [ 48 ] The operation included two phases. The second phase of the turkish invasion was performed on 14 August 1974, where the turkish united states army advanced their positions, finally capturing a total of 37 % of Cypriot territory including the northern part of Nicosia. The crusade left the island with a massive refugee trouble on both sides. [ 49 ] On 13 February 1975, the turkish Cypriot residential district declared the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus in the sphere occupied by turkish forces. [ 50 ] On 15 November 1983, Turkish Cypriots proclaimed their independence as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. On 23 April 2003, the Ledra Palace traverse was opened through the Green Line, the first time that crossing was allowed since 1974. [ 51 ] This was followed by the possibility of Ayios Dometios / Metehan crossing point on 9 May 2003. [ 52 ] On 3 April 2008, the Ledra Street cross was besides reopened. [ 53 ] From 30 October 2016 and onwards, Nicosia became the merely capital city in the earth that had two time zones, after the parliament of the de facto Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus abolished standard time and decided that Northern Cyprus remains at UTC+03:00 year-round, following Turkey ‘s exemplar. [ 54 ] [ 55 ] The adopt year, due to criticism from the turkish Cypriot populace in the north, the Turkish Cypriot politics decided to go bet on to standard clock time, following the pillow of Europe .

geography [edit ]

climate [edit ]

Nicosia has a hot semi-arid climate ( Köppen climate classification BSh ) due to its low annual precipitation totals and annual temperature scope. [ 56 ] The city experiences long, hot to sweltering, dry summers, and pleasant winters, with most of the rain occurring in winter. Winter haste is occasionally accompanied by sleet but rarely by snow. The collection of coke is peculiarly rare ( last events occurred in 1950, 1974 and 1997 ). There is occasionally light frost during the winter nights. On 4 September 2020, Nicosia recorded a temperature of 46.2 °C ( 115.2 °F ), which is the highest temperature to have ever been recorded in Cyprus. [ 57 ]

Climate data for Athalassa, Nicosia, elevation: 162 m (1991-2005 normals, extremes 1915–present) (Satellite view)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.2
Average high °C (°F) 15.5
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.6
Average low °C (°F) 5.7
Record low °C (°F) −2.0
Average rainfall mm (inches) 54.7
Average rainy days ( ≥ 1 millimeter ) 7.3 6.5 5.4 3.5 2.7 1.3 0.5 0.1 0.6 2.8 4.7 7.7 43.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 182.9 200.1 238.7 267.0 331.7 369.0 387.5 365.8 312.0 275.9 213.0 170.5 3,314.1
Source 1: Meteorological Service (Cyprus)[58][59]
Source 2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[60]

cityscape [edit ]

South of the green Line [edit ]

Ledra Street is in the middle of the wall city. The street has historically been the busiest shop street of the capital and adjacent streets lead to the most alert contribution of the old city with narrow streets, boutiques, bars and art-cafés. The street today is a historic repository on its own. It is about 1 km ( 0.6 nautical mile ) farseeing and connects the south and north parts of the previous city. During the EOKA contend that ran from 1955 to 1959, the street acquired the informal nickname The Murder Mile in reference to the patronize target of the british colonialists by nationalist fighters along its course. [ 61 ] [ 62 ] In 1963, during the outbreak of hostilities between the Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities, following the announcement of amendments to the Cypriot Constitution, Turkish Cypriots withdrew to the northern separate of Nicosia which became one of the many Turkish Cypriot enclaves which existed throughout the island. Various streets which ran between the northern and southerly separate of the city, including Ledra Street, were blockaded. During the turkish army invasion of Cyprus in 1974, turkish troops occupied northerly Nicosia ( adenine well as the northerly part of Cyprus ). A buffer zone was established across the island along the ceasefire line to separate the northern Turkish controlled depart of the island, and the south. The buffer zone runs through Ledra Street. After many failed attempts on reaching agreement between the two communities, Ledra Street was reopened on 3 April 2008 .
To the east of Ledra Street, Faneromeni Square was the center of Nicosia before 1974. It hosts a number of historical buildings and monuments including Faneromeni Church, Faneromeni School, Faneromeni Library and the Marble Mausoleum. Faneromeni Church, is a church built in 1872 in the stead of another church service located at the same site, constructed with the remains of La Cava palace and a convent. There rest the archbishop and the other bishops who were executed by the Ottomans in the Saray Square during the 1821 disgust. The Palace of the Archbishop can be found at Archbishop Kyprianos Square. Although it seems very old, it is a fantastic caricature of typical venetian style, built in 1956. adjacent to the palace is the late Gothic St. John ‘s Cathedral ( 1665 ) with picturesque fresco. The feather leads to Onasagorou Street, another busy shopping street in the historic center. The walls surrounding the old city have three gates. In The Kyrenia Gate which was responsible to the transport to the north, and specially Kyrenia, the Famagusta Gate which was responsible for the ecstasy from Famagusta, Larnaca and Limassol and Karpasia, and the Paphos Gate for transportation to the west and particularly Paphos. All three gates are well-preserved. [ 63 ] The historic center is distinctly present inside the walls, but the modern city has grown beyond. presently, the independent straight of the city is Eleftheria ( Freedom ) Square, with the city manor hall, the post agency and the library. The straight, which is under renovation, connects the old city with the new city where one can find the chief denounce streets such as the prestigious Stasikratous Street, Themistokli Dervi Avenue and Makarios Avenue .
Archbishop ‘s palace nicosia is besides known for its fine museums. The Archbishop ‘s Palace contains a Byzantine museum containing the largest solicitation of religious icons on the island. Leventis Municipal Museum is the merely historical museum of Nicosia and revives the old ways of life in the capital from ancient times up to our days. other concern museums include the Folk Art Museum, National Struggle Museum ( witnessing the rebellion against the british presidency in the 1950s ), Cyprus Ethnological Museum ( House of Dragoman Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios, eighteenth century ) and the Handicrafts Centre. Nicosia besides hosts an armenian archbishopric, a small Buddhist temple, a Maronite archbishopric, and a Roman Catholic church .

north of the park Line [edit ]

The historical Samanbahçe neighborhood Sarayönü Square A view from the Yenişehir quarter Pedieos river walking route At the focus on of the wall city lies the Sarayönü Square. The squarely has been dubbed as “ the heart of Nicosia ” and historically has been the cultural center of the turkish Cypriot community. [ 64 ] In the middle of the square stands the venetian Column, known merely as “ the Obelisk ” ( “ Dikiltaş ” ) to the locals and symbolic of the area ‘s government. [ 64 ] The column was brought from the ancient city of Salamis by the Venetians in 1550. [ 65 ] The Girne Avenue connects Sarayönü to the Kyrenia Gate and the İnönü Square in front of it. The avenue has been described as “ the symbol of the wall city ”, and is filled with numerous shops and restaurants. [ 66 ] adjacent to the Ledra Street checkpoint is the Arasta sphere. The area was pedestrianized in 2013 and is home to a network of historic shop streets, reflecting an eastern patronize tradition with food and traditional items. [ 67 ] Nearby Büyük Han, the largest caravansary in the island and considered to be one of the finest buildings in Cyprus, was built in 1572 by the Ottomans and functions as a cultural center. [ 68 ] [ 69 ] To the west of the Girne Avenue lies the Samanbahçe vicinity, built in the nineteenth century by the government, considered to be the beginning exercise of social housing in the island. distillery a residential area, the region is considered to be one of the best representations of the Cypriot acculturation. [ 70 ] Another central point in the wall city is the Selimiye Mosque, primitively built as the St. Sophia Cathedral. The mosque is the chief religious center in Northern Cyprus. It was built between 1209 and 1228 by the Latin Church of Cyprus, in a Gothic style resembling french cathedrals. [ 71 ] Next to the mosque is the Bedesten, a big greek church in the Byzantine and Gothic styles, built in the fourteenth hundred. It was used as a marketplace in the Ottoman era. today, it is used as a cultural center where diverse cultural activities such as concerts and festivals take position. [ 72 ] [ 73 ] The quarters of Nicosia outside the wall city are more roomy than the wall city, with wider roads and junctions. These areas are characterized by multi-floor concrete buildings. In the outskirts of the city, a act large and imposing villas have been built that belong to the center and upper-classes. [ 74 ] The Dereboyu Avenue serves as the modern heart of the northerly share and is its center field of entertainment .

Politics and administration [edit ]

government of the metropolitan area [edit ]

Map of Greater Nicosia Greater Nicosia Greater Nicosia is administered by several municipalities. In the center is the city municipality of Nicosia itself ( see below ). other municipalities are Strovolos, Lakatamia, Latsia, Aglandjia, Engomi, Agios Dhometios and the newly formed ( as of 2011 ) Yeri & Tseri. The population of the conurbation is 300,000 ( 2011 census, plus turkish Cypriot administered census of 2006 ) of which 100,000 alive within the Nicosia municipal area. Because Nicosia municipality has classify communal municipal administrations, the population of Strovolos ( 67,904 ( 2011 Census ) ) is actually the largest of all the local authorities in Greater Nicosia. Within Nicosia municipality, most of the population resides in the more recently annexed outlying areas of Kaimakli, Pallouriotissa, Omorfita and Ayii Omoloyites. There is no metropolitan assurance as such for Greater Nicosia and respective roles, responsibilities and functions for the wide area are undertaken by the Nicosia District administration, bodies such as the Nicosia Water Board and, to some extent, Nicosia municipality. The Nicosia Water Board supplies water to the postdate municipalities : Nicosia, Strovolos, Aglandjia, Engomi, Ay. Dometios, Latsia, Geri and Tseri. The board consists of three persons nominated by the Council of each municipality, plus three members appointed by the politics, who are normally the District Officer of Nicosia District, who chairs the Board, the Accountant General and the Director of the Water Department. The board besides issue Anthoupolis and Ergates, for whom the government leave representatives. Thus the display panel is in the majority controlled by the municipalities of Greater Nicosia in providing this critical local government service. [ 75 ] The Nicosia Sewerage Board, is alike majority controlled by the municipalities of Greater Nicosia. It is chaired ex officio by the Mayor of Nicosia and consists of members chosen by the municipalities of Nicosia ( 6 members ), Strovolos ( 5 members ), Aglandjia ( 2 members ), Lakatamia ( 2 members ), Ay. Dometios ( 2 members ), Engomi ( 2 members ), Latsia ( 1 member ). The sewage discussion establish is at Mia Milia. The Nicosia Sewerage System serves a population of approximately 140,000 and an area of 20 km2 ( 8 sq michigan ). approximately 30 % of the inflowing is contributed by the turkish Cypriot Side. [ 76 ] Public transmit is not controlled by the local authorities, but comes under the Nicosia District administration, which is an arm of the Ministry of the Interior. Transport services ( primarily bus and cab ) are provided by private operators such as OSEL. [ 77 ] In late 2019 the contract for providing transmit services in the zone of Nicosia was awarded via tender to a private consortium which was expected to take over the system on 5 July 2020. [ 78 ] [ 79 ]

Nicosia Municipality [edit ]

Nicosia Municipality build at Eleftheria Square The Nicosia Municipality is responsible for all the municipal duties within the wall city and the immediately adjacent areas. The Constitution states that respective main politics buildings and headquarters must be situated within the Nicosia municipal boundaries. [ 80 ] however classify municipalities are prescribed by the united states constitution for in the five largest towns, including Nicosia, [ 81 ] and in the case of Nicosia the separate administration was established in 1958. The turkish Municipal Committees ( Temporary Provisions ) Law, 1959 [ 82 ] established a municipal authority run by a “ turkish Municipal Committee ”, defined as “ the torso of persons set up on or after the first day of July, 1958, in the towns of Nicosia, Limassol, Famagusta, Larnaca and Paphos by the turkish inhabitants thence for the determination of performing municipal functions within the municipal limits of such towns ” .The Nicosia Turkish Municipality, founded in 1958, carries out municipal duties in the northerly and north-western part of city. [ 83 ] The remaining areas, in the south and east of the city, are administered by Nicosia Municipality .

Nicosia Turkish Municipality [edit ]

Nicosia Turkish Municipal building Nicosia Turkish Municipal build The beginning attempt to establish a Nicosia Turkish Municipality was made in 1958. In October 1959, the british Colonial Administration passed the turkish Municipality Committees police. In 1960 with the resolution of independence of Cyprus, the Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus gave Turkish Cypriots the right to establish their own municipality. [ 84 ] [ 85 ] [ 86 ] As negotiations between the two sides to establish discriminate municipalities failed in 1962, implementing legislation was never passed. [ 87 ] [ 88 ] Since the complete part of Nicosia following the turkish Invasion in 1974, the Nicosia Turkish Municipality has become the de facto local agency of northern Nicosia. The Nicosia Turkish Municipality is a member the Union of Cyprus Turkish Municipalities. [ 89 ] The mayor is Mehmet Harmancı from the Communal Democracy Party .

early municipalities in Greater Nicosia [edit ]

Until 1986 there were no suburban municipalities. then, following the procedures in the Municipal Law 111/1985, Strovolos, Engomi, Ay. Dometios, Aglandjia, Latsia and Lakatamia were erected into municipalities. [ 90 ] Each municipal council has the number of members described in the Municipal Law 111/1985 depending on the population figures. All members of the council are elected directly by the people for a period of 5 years .

administrative divisions and demographics [edit ]

administrative divisions ( 2011 Census )

Nicosia within the city limits is divided into 29 administrative units, according to the latest census. This whole is termed in English as quarter, neighbourhood, parish, enoria or mahalla. These units are : Ayios Andreas ( once Tophane ), Trypiotis, Nebethane, Tabakhane, Phaneromeni, Ayios Savvas, Omerie, Ayios Antonios ( St. Anthony ), St. John, Taht-el-kale, Chrysaliniotissa, Ayios Kassianos ( Kafesli ), Kaïmakli, Panayia, St Constantine & Helen, Ayioi Omoloyites, Arab Ahmet, Yeni Jami, Omorfita, Ibrahim Pasha, Mahmut Pasha, Abu Kavouk, St. Luke, Abdi Chavush, Iplik Pazar and Korkut Effendi, Ayia Sophia, Haydar Pasha, Karamanzade, [ 91 ] and Yenişehir/Neapolis. [ 92 ]
presidential Palace in Strovolos area. The municipality of Strovolos, established in 1986, is the second largest municipal authority in Cyprus in terms of population after Limassol and encompasses the southerly suburb of the capital immediately adjacent to Nicosia municipality. [ 93 ] Lakatamia, Latsia, Geri and Aglandjia are other separate municipalities in the Nicosia metropolitan area. The town of Gönyeli is now conurbated with the northerly suburbs. previously a greenwich village authority, it now functions as a municipality [ 94 ] within the lapp sphere [ 95 ] The suburbs immediately to the north of the city have not been erected into municipalities. The greenwich village agency of Hamitköy ( besides known as Hamid Mandres ) was heavily urbanize [ 96 ] and was included within the borders of Nicosia Turkish Municipality [ 97 ] as a Nicosia vicinity headed by a muhtar. [ 98 ] Ortakeuy Village assurance [ 99 ] has similarly been redefined as a neighborhood of Nicosia Turkish Municipality .

religion [edit ]

Holy Cross Church historically Nicosia is a melting pot harmonizing multiple religious establishments, denominations, churches, mosques, synagogues, etc. traditionally nicosia hosts Greek Orthodox churches, armenian Apostolic churches, Latin Catholic, Maronite Catholic, Anglican churches, evangelical churches ampere good as mosques and synagogues .

armenian Apostolic Church [edit ]

armenian Apostolic Church in Nicosia One of the oldest armenian churches known as the Benedictine Abbey of Our lady of Tyre, was founded in the thirteenth century as a principal convent following the spill of Jerusalem. In 1308, the Lusignan baron, Henry II of Jerusalem, repaired the church after it was destroyed by an earthquake. As many of the nuns were armenian in beginning, it came under the armenian church before 1504. [ 100 ] Since 1963, the church has been located in North Nicosia, under Turkish Cypriot administration. The church service suffered the crash of some parts and a capital deterioration of condition public treasury 2007, when the restoration work began. [ 101 ] The renovation was completed in 2013 [ 102 ] and won the EU Prize For Cultural Heritage ( Europa Nostra Award ) in 2015. [ 103 ] With the help of the World Council of Churches, the Church of Westphalia, the Cyprus politics and the close, a raw church was built in Strovolos, besides called “ Sourp Asdvadzadzin ”. Its foundation stone was laid on 25 September 1976 by Archbishop Makarios III and Archbishop Nerses Pakhdigian. It was formally inaugurated on 22 November 1981 by Catholicos of Cilicia Khoren I and Coadjutor Catholicos of Cilicia Karekin II, in the presence of Archbishop Chrysostomos I, Bishop Zareh Aznavorian and Representative Dr. Antranik L. Ashdjian .

Maronite Catholic Church [edit ]

Maronite Church in Nicosia The Maronite community is a traditional community in Nicosia. The archeparchy extends its legal power over all the close Maronites of the island of Cyprus. Its arcieparchial seat is the city of Nicosia, where is located the Our lady of Grace Cathedral ( Nicosia ). The archeparchy at the end of 2013 out of a population of 838,897 people had 10,400 baptized, corresponding to 1.2 % of the total. Its territory is divided into 12 parishes. Our Lady of Grace Cathedral is the main Maronite church service of the city of Nicosia, in Cyprus, and is the cathedral of the Maronite Catholic Archeparchy of Cyprus. The first cathedral was dedicated to St. John, but during the Ottoman occupation it was turned into a mosque. The lebanese Maronite residential district erected the church of Santa Croce, late entrusted to the Franciscans, and the current church of Our lady of Grace is near to the Franciscan church. In 1960, the seat of the parsonage and the smother buildings were built. [ 104 ] On 6 June 2010 Pope Benedict XVI, the first pope to make an apostolic slip to the island, visited the cathedral of Nicosia. [ 105 ]

anglican church [edit ]

anglican Church in Nicosia The church service of St. Paul was built in 1893 when Cyprus was a protectorate of the british Empire. The influence of politics on architecture is discernible by the geomorphologic elements of the build, which is evocative of an english parish church. The christian church service nowadays is separate of the Diocese of Cyprus and the Gulf .

greek Evangelical church service [edit ]

greek Evangelical Church of Nicosia The greek Evangelical Church of Nicosia is a relatively mod computer architecture serving the local Protestant community. Along with special hours dedicated to services of the greek Evangelical community, it serves as a idolize center of local Protestants of other nationalities, such as armenian, American, Romanian, Korean, Chinese, etc. It is located on Gladstone Street. [ 106 ]

armenian Evangelical church [edit ]

armenian Evangelical Church of Nicosia The inaugural armenian Evangelicals in Cyprus came after the arrival of the british in July 1878. As they were not committed, and very few, they cursorily became associated with the Mother Church ( armenian Apostolic Church ), such as Apisoghom Utidjian, the official express documents translator – and the son of Stepan Utidjian, one of the original founders of the armenian Evangelical Church -, who served as Chairman of the Nicosia parish council for 30 years. With the inflow of more Protestants, armenian Evangelicals became consort with the Reformed Presbyterian Church adenine early as 1887. Although the chief centres were Nicosia and Larnaca, gatherings were occasionally held in Limassol, Famagusta and Amiandos. There was besides a small armenian Evangelical church, located in Mahmoud Pasha street, in the Turkish-occupied separate of the wall city of Nicosia—behind the old american Academy construction, near the Arab Ahmed mosque. Prior to its erection, armenian Evangelicals used to worship God at the Reformed Presbyterian church on Apostolos Varnavas street, opposite the old Powerhouse and behind the construction of the Holy Archbishopric of Cyprus. The church – a imagination already since the early 1930s – was finally built thanks to the enterprise of curate Yohanna Der Megerditchian, with the fiscal contribution of the Reformed Presbyterian Church and the armenian Evangelical close ; its architect was Dickran H. Davidian. Its foundation gem was laid on 28 July 1946 by curate Yohanna five hundred Megerditchian, who dedicated it on 1 July 1947. On the lower function of the right wall to the side of the entrance there is an dedication in Armenian .

Converted Churches [edit ]

Converted church possibly the most iconic religious architecture of Nicosia is the Cathedral of Saint Sophia, besides known as the Agia Sophia of Nicosia, which was constructed in the class of 1326 as a Catholic church. It was converted into a mosque and it is located in North Nicosia. It has historically been the chief mosque of the city. As a mosque it is known as the Selimiye Mosque which is housed in the largest and oldest surviving Gothic church in Cyprus ( interior dimensions : 66 meter × 21 megabyte or 217 by 69 feet ) possibly constructed on the site of an earlier Byzantine church. [ 107 ] During the 50-day Ottoman siege of the city in 1570, the cathedral provided recourse for a great number of people. When the city fell on 9 September, Francesco Contarini, the Bishop of Paphos, delivered the last christian sermon in the building, in which he asked for divine aid and exhorted the people. The cathedral was stormed by Ottoman soldiers, who broke the door and killed the bishop along with others. They smashed or threw out christian items, such as furniture and ornaments in the cathedral [ 108 ] and destroyed the choir ampere well as the nave. [ 109 ] then, they washed the interior of the mosque to make it ready for the first Friday prayer that it would host on 15 September, which was attended by the air force officer Lala Mustafa Pasha and saw the official conversion of the cathedral into a mosque. [ 108 ] During the lapp year, the two minarets were added, vitamin a well as Islamic features such as the mihrab and the minbar. The first imam of the mosque was Moravizade Ahmet Efendi, who hailed from the Morea province of the Ottoman Empire. [ 111 ] All imams maintained the custom of climbing the step to the minbar before Friday sermons while leaning on a sword used during the conquest of Nicosia to signify that Nicosia was captured by seduction. [ 112 ] Following its conversion, the mosque became the property of the Sultan Selim Foundation, which was responsible for maintaining it. early donors formed a number of foundations to help with the maintenance. Okçuzade Mehmed Paşa, a governor of Cyprus in the sixteenth hundred, donated a shop to provide income for the Sultan Selim Foundation ; early donations include estates in the countryside and early shops. The foundation employed trustees ( mütevelli ) to look after the funds and transferred 40,000 akçe per annum to Medina in late sixteenth hundred. [ 114 ] During the Ottoman period, it was the largest mosque in the solid island, and was used hebdomadally by the Ottoman governor, administrators and elite for the Friday prayers. In the late eighteenth century, a large procession that consisted of the leading officials in the front on horseback, followed by junior-grade officials on foot, came to the mosque every Friday .

islam [edit ]

Omeriye Mosque in Nicosia historically Nicosia ( south and north ) hosts over 15 mosques, either in the first place constructed as such or converted from a church. The Ömeriye Mosque, once known as the augustinian Church of Saint Mary is a mosque in the wall city of Nicosia on the island of Cyprus, presently located in the south section of Nicosia. [ 115 ] Following the turkish invasion of Cyprus, the mosque gained meaning as one of the most important sites of Muslim worship in the non-Muslim section of the island and the city. [ 115 ] presently, the mosque is functioning and open for both worshippers and visitors. [ 116 ] [ 117 ] once, the site of the mosque was occupied by the augustinian Church of Saint Mary, which dated back to the fourteenth hundred. During the Ottoman-Venetian War of 1570-73, the church was first heavily damaged during the siege of Nicosia in 1570, and was finally levelled after the war. [ 116 ] After the turkish seduction of Cyprus, Lala Mustafa Pasha, the Ottoman commander, ordered a mosque to be built on the site of the former church, [ 116 ] based on a popular impression that Umar, second caliph of Islam, was buried at this site in seventh century. [ 117 ] According to Turkish Cypriot folklore, the Ömeriye Mosque is the beginning mosque where Turks prayed on the island following its seduction in 1571. [ 118 ]

culture [edit ]

The World of Cyprus, an acrylic painting with a total length of 17.5 meters by Adamantios Diamantis in , an acrylic paint with a total length of 17.5 meters by Adamantios Diamantis in Leventis Gallery The Cyprus Museum in Nicosia is the largest and oldest archaeological museum in Cyprus. In old Nicosia, the Ethnological Museum ( Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios Mansion ) is the most important exemplar of urban computer architecture of the death hundred of Ottoman domination which survives in old Nicosia. today, the sign of the zodiac which was awarded the Europa Nostra trophy for its emblematic renovation study, functions as a museum where a solicitation of artifacts from the Byzantine, Medieval and Ottoman periods are displayed. early museums in Nicosia include the Cyprus Museum of Natural History and the Leventis Municipal Museum of Nicosia and Von World Pens Hall in the south. In the union, the Dervish Pasha Mansion, alike in architecture to the Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios Mansion, serves as an ethnological museum, displaying Ottoman and archaeological artifacts. [ 119 ] early museums include the Lusignan House, [ 120 ] the Mevlevi Tekke Museum, associated with the sect of the Whirling Dervishes, [ 121 ] and the Lapidary Museum. [ 122 ] art galleries in Nicosia include the Leventis Gallery, which hosts over 800 paintings from Cypriot, Greek or european artists. Nicosia offers a wide variety show of melodious and theatrical performance events, organized either by the municipality or mugwump organizations. Halls and theatres used for this aim include :

  • The Cyprus National Theatre, which contains two performance spaces:[123]
    • the 550-seat Lyric Theater with a bold exterior but an intimate theatrical environment. Its design minimizes the distance from actor to audience;
    • the 150-seat New Theater, which is an open-ended workshop space, with simple galleries around the room. The stage can be set in the center, at the ends, or to one side of the room, and the space can be opened to the private garden beyond.
  • The Pallas Cinema-Theatre which was renovated from a near derelict state in 2008.[124]
  • Theatro Ena[125]
  • Maskarini Theatre[126][127]
  • Dionysos Theatre[128][129]
  • Melina Mercouri Hall,[130]
  • Theatro Dentro

Nicosia ‘s universities besides boast an impressive range of facilities, and many churches and outdoor spaces are used to host cultural events. [ citation needed ] The Near East University hosts the Atatürk Cultural and Conference Centre, with 700 seats. [ 131 ] nicosia hosted the Miss Universe 2000 pageant. [ 132 ] In June 2011, Nicosia launched a failed campaign to become the european capital of Culture for 2017. [ 133 ]

education [edit ]

An entrance to the Melkonian Educational Institute Nicosia has a large scholar community as it is the seat of five universities, the University of Cyprus ( UCY ), the University of Nicosia, the European University Cyprus, the Open University of Cyprus and Frederick University. nicosia is besides home to the one of the largest historic armenian schools, the Melkonian Educational Institute established in 1926 which operated until 2005. The Melkonian Institution was created as an orphanage in the aftermath of the armenian Genocide of 1915–1923 .

economy [edit ]

view of Nicosia Financial Quarter nicosia is the fiscal and business heart of Cyprus. The city hosts the headquarters of all Cypriot banks namely the early Cyprus Popular Bank ( besides known as Laiki Bank ), Bank of Cyprus, the Hellenic Bank. Further, the Central Bank of Cyprus is located in the Acropolis area of the Cypriot das kapital. A numeral of external businesses base their Cypriot headquarters in Nicosia, such as the big four audited account firms PWC, Deloitte, KPMG and Ernst & Young. International engineering companies such as NCR and TSYS have their regional headquarters in Nicosia. The city is besides dwelling to local fiscal newspapers such as the Financial Mirror and Stockwatch. Cyprus Airways had its head offices in the capture of Makariou Avenue. [ 134 ] According to a holocene UBS view in August 2011, Nicosia is the wealthiest per caput city of the eastern Mediterranean and the tenth richest city in the worldly concern by purchasing power in 2011. [ 135 ]

conveyance [edit ]

circuitous on the A1 highway in Nicosia Nicosia is linked with early major cities in Cyprus via a mod expressway network. The A1 connects Nicosia with Limassol in the south with the A6 going from Limassol onto Paphos. The A2 links Nicosia with the south easterly city of Larnaca with the A3 going from Larnaca to Ayia Napa. The A9 connects Nicosia to the west Nicosia zone villages and the Troodos mountains. The capital is besides linked to the 2 international airports : Larnaca International Airport and Paphos International Airport. ( Nicosia International Airport ceased commercial operations in 1974 ; it is located within the greens Line fender zone, and is used as the headquarters of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus. ) Public tape drive within the city is served by a raw busbar service. Bus services in Nicosia are run by OSEL. [ 136 ] In the northern part, the ship’s company of LETTAŞ provides this service. [ 137 ] Many taxi companies operate in Nicosia. Fares are regulated by police and taxi drivers are obliged to use a taximeter. In 2010, as part of the Nicosia Integrated Mobility Plan, a pre-feasibility study for a proposed tramway network has taken place and sponsored by the Ministry of Communications and Works. The study compared two scenarios, with and without the operation of a tramline in terms of emit polluting loads. [ 138 ] In 2011, the Nicosia Municipality introduced the Bike in Action system, a bicycle sharing system which covers the Greater Nicosia area. The scheme is run by the Inter-Municipal Bicycle Company of Nicosia ( DEPL ). [ 139 ] There is no train network in Cyprus. Plans for the creation of an intercity railroad track are under way. The inaugural railway line on the island was the cyprus Government Railway which operated from 1905 to 1951. It was closed down ascribable to fiscal reasons. [ 140 ]

Sports [edit ]

Photo of field club tennis court in Nicosia Field club tennis courts football is the most popular sport in Cyprus, and Nicosia is home of three major teams of the island ; APOEL, Omonia and Olympiakos. APOEL and Omonia are dominant in Cypriot football. There are besides many early football clubs in Nicosia and the suburb. The city besides hosts Çetinkaya, Yenicami, Küçük Kaymaklı and Gönyeli, four of the major turkish Cypriot clubs. Nicosia is besides family to AGBU Ararat Nicosia FC, the island ‘s alone armenian FC. nicosia is besides the home for many clubs for basketball, handball and other sports. APOEL and Omonia have basketball and volleyball sections and Keravnos is one of the major basketball teams of the island. The acrobatic Club Pancypria ( GSP ), the owner of the Neo GSP Stadium, is one of the major athletics clubs of the island. besides, all teams in the Futsal First Division are from Nicosia. In summation, two handball teams, european University and SPE Strovolou, are located in Nicosia. Nicosia has some of the biggest venues in the island ; the Neo GSP Stadium, with capacitance of 23,400, is the home for the national team, APOEL, Olympiakos and Omonia. Makario Stadium has a capacitance of 16,000. In the north, the Nicosia Atatürk Stadium has a capability of 28,000. [ 141 ] The Eleftheria Indoor Hall is the biggest basketball stadium in Cyprus, with capacity of 6,500 seats and is the home for the national team, APOEL and Omonia. The Lefkotheo indoor arena is the volleyball stadium for APOEL and Omonia. In Nicosia in 2010 and 2012. took home Nicosia Marathon, organized by Athanasios Ktorides Foundation, and attracted more than 7,000 participants. [ 142 ] [ 143 ] nicosia hosted the 2000 ISSF World Cup Final shooting events for the shotgun. besides the city hosted two basketball events ; the European Saporta Cup in 1997 and the 2005 FIBA Europe All Star Game in the Eleftheria Indoor Hall. Another event which was hosted in Nicosia were the Games of the Small States of Europe in 1989 and 2009 .

luminary people [edit ]

Twin towns – baby cities [edit ]

Nicosia is twinned with : [ 144 ]

friendly cities [edit ]

Nicosia besides cooperates with : [ 144 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

bibliography [edit ]

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