Maryland – Wikipedia

U.S. state
This article is about the U.S. state. For other uses, see Maryland ( disambiguation )
state in the United States

Maryland ( MERR-il-ənd ) [ a ] is a department of state in the middle atlantic region of the United States. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] It shares borders with Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west ; Pennsylvania to its north ; and Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. Baltimore [ 11 ] is the largest city in the country, and the capital is Annapolis. Among its episodic nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, and the Chesapeake Bay State. It is named after the English Queen Henrietta Maria, then known in England as Mary. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] Before its coastline was explored by Europeans in the sixteenth hundred, Maryland was inhabited by several groups of native Americans – largely by the Algonquin, and, to a lesser degree, by the Iroquois and Siouian. [ 14 ] As one of the original Thirteen Colonies of England, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, a Catholic convert [ 15 ] [ 16 ] who sought to provide a religious seaport for Catholics persecuted in England. [ 17 ] In 1632, Charles I of England granted Lord Baltimore a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Henrietta Maria. [ 18 ] Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who rejected Catholicism in their settlements, Lord Baltimore envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. [ 17 ] Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this rationale by penalizing anyone who “ reproached ” a mate Marylander based on religious affiliation. [ 19 ] Nevertheless, religious discord was common in the early years, and Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other english colony. Maryland ‘s early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay. Its economy was heavily plantation-based and centered by and large on the cultivation of tobacco. Great Britain ‘s necessitate for brassy undertaking led to a rapid expansion of apprenticed servants, penal parturiency, and african slaves. In 1760, Maryland ‘s current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running frame challenge with Pennsylvania. Maryland was an active player in the events leading up to the american Revolution, and by 1776, its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played samara political and military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded kingdom for the establishment of the U.S. capital of Washington, D.C. Although then a slave department of state, Maryland remained in the Union during the American Civil War, its strategic localization giving it a significant function in the battle. After the Civil War, Maryland took separate in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, and bulk immigration from Europe. Since the 1940s, the state ‘s population has grown quickly, to approximately six million residents, and it is among the most dumbly populated U.S. states. As of 2015, Maryland had the highest median family income of any department of state, owing in large contribution to its proximity to Washington, D.C., and a highly diversify economy spanning manufacture, retail services, populace administration, real estate, higher education, information technology, defensive structure compress, health concern, and biotechnology. [ 20 ] The state ‘s cardinal function in U.S. history is reflected by its host of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per head. Sixteen of Maryland ‘s twenty-three counties, a well as the city of Baltimore, border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, [ 21 ] [ 11 ] which combined sum more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U.S., it features a variety show of climates and topographical features that have earned it the nickname of America in Miniature. [ 22 ] In a like vein, Maryland ‘s geography, culture, and history unite elements of the middle atlantic, Northeastern, and Southern regions of the nation .

history [edit ]

seventeenth century [edit ]

Maryland ‘s first colonial colony [edit ]

George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore ( 1579–1632 ), sought a charter from King Charles I for the district between Massachusetts to the north and Virginia to the immediate south. [ 23 ] After Baltimore died in April 1632, the charter was granted to his son, Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore ( 1605–1675 ), on June 20, 1632. officially, the fresh “ Maryland Colony ” was named in honor of Henrietta Maria of France, wife of Charles I of England. The 1st Baron Baltimore initially proposed the name “ Crescentia ”, the land of emergence or increase, but “ the King proposed Terra Mariae [ Mary Land ], which was concluded on and Inserted in the bill. ” [ 17 ] The original das kapital of Maryland was St. Mary ‘s City, on the north shore of the Potomac River, and the county surrounding it, the first gear erected/created in the state, [ 25 ] was first called Augusta Carolina, after the King, and late named St. Mary ‘s County. [ 26 ] Lord Baltimore ‘s first settlers arrived in the fresh colony in March 1634, with his younger brother the Honorable Leonard Calvert ( 1606–1647 ), as first provincial Governor of Maryland. They made their inaugural permanent settlement at St. Mary ‘s City in what is now St. Mary ‘s County. They purchased the web site from the overriding headman of the region, who was eager to establish trade. St. Mary ‘s became the first capital of Maryland, and remained sol for 60 years until 1695. More settlers soon followed. Their tobacco crops were successful and quickly made the new colony profitable. however, given the incidence of malaria, yellow fever, and typhoid, life anticipation in Maryland was about 10 years less than in New England. [ 27 ]

persecution of Catholics [edit ]

Maryland was founded to provide a haven for England ‘s Roman Catholic minority. [ 28 ] Although Maryland was the most heavy Catholic of the English mainland colonies, the religion was placid in the minority, consisting of less than 10 % of the total population. [ 29 ] In 1642, a number of Puritans left Virginia for Maryland and founded Providence ( now called Annapolis ) on the westerly prop up of the upper berth Chesapeake Bay. [ 30 ] A challenge with traders from Virginia over Kent Island in the Chesapeake led to armed conflict. In 1644, William Claiborne, a Puritan, seized Kent Island while his associate, the pro-Parliament Puritan Richard Ingle, took over St. Mary ‘s. [ 31 ] Both use religion as a tool to gain popular support. The two years from 1644 to 1646 when Claiborne and his Puritan associates held rock were known as “ The Plundering Time ”. They captured Jesuit priests, imprisoned them, then sent them back to England. In 1646 Leonard Calvert returned with troops, recaptured St. Mary ‘s City, and restored order. The House of Delegates passed the “ Act concerning Religion ” in 1649 granting religious familiarity to all trinitarian Christians. [ 27 ] In 1650, the Puritans revolted against the proprietary politics. “ Protestants swept the Catholics out of the legislature … and religious discord returned. ” [ 27 ] The Puritans set up a new government prohibiting both Roman Catholicism and Anglicanism. The Puritan revolutionist government persecuted Maryland Catholics during its reign, known as the “ rape time ”. Mobs burned devour all the original Catholic churches of southerly Maryland. The Puritan rule lasted until 1658 when the Calvert syndicate and Lord Baltimore regained proprietary control and re-enacted the Toleration Act. After England ‘s “ Glorious Revolution “ of 1688, Maryland outlawed Catholicism. In 1704, the Maryland General Assembly prohibited Catholics from operational schools, limited the corporate ownership of property to hamper religious orders from expanding or supporting themselves, and encouraged the conversion of Catholic children. [ 29 ] The celebration of the Catholic sacraments was besides officially restricted. This country of affairs lasted until after the american Revolutionary War ( 1775–1783 ). affluent catholic planters built chapels on their farming to exercise their religion in relative privacy. Into the eighteenth century, individual priests and lie leaders claimed Maryland farms belonging to the Jesuits as personal property and bequeathed them in order to evade the legal restrictions on religious organizations ‘ owning property. [ 29 ]

boundary line disputes ( 1681–1760 ) [edit ]

The imperial charter granted Maryland the land north of the Potomac River up to the fortieth parallel. A problem rise when Charles II granted a charter for Pennsylvania. The grant defined Pennsylvania ‘s southerly edge as identical to Maryland ‘s northern bound, the fortieth twin. But the concede indicated that Charles II and William Penn assumed the fortieth parallel would pass stopping point to New Castle, Delaware when it falls north of Philadelphia, the site of which Penn had already selected for his colony ‘s capital city. Negotiations ensued after the problem was discovered in 1681. A compromise proposed by Charles II in 1682 was undermined by Penn ‘s receiving the extra allow of what is now Delaware. [ 32 ] Penn successfully argued that the Maryland charter entitled Lord Baltimore only to changeable lands, and Dutch liquidation in Delaware predated his charter. The quarrel remained unresolved for closely a hundred, carried on by the descendants of William Penn and Lord Baltimore—the Calvert kin, which controlled Maryland, and the Penn family, which controlled Pennsylvania. [ 32 ]
[33] 1732 map of Maryland The margin quarrel with Pennsylvania led to Cresap ‘s War in the 1730s. Hostilities erupted in 1730 and escalated through the inaugural one-half of the decade, culminating in the deployment of military forces by Maryland in 1736 and by Pennsylvania in 1737. The armed phase of the conflict ended in May 1738 with the treatment of King George II, who compelled the negotiation of a armistice. A probationary agreement had been established in 1732. [ 32 ] Negotiations continued until a concluding agreement was signed in 1760. The agreement defined the edge between Maryland and Pennsylvania as the line of latitude now known as the Mason–Dixon line. Maryland ‘s border with Delaware was based on a Transpeninsular Line and the Twelve-Mile Circle around New Castle. [ 32 ]

eighteenth century [edit ]

Most of the english colonists arrived in Maryland as indenture servants, and had to serve a several years ‘ term as laborers to pay for their enactment. [ 34 ] In the early years, the line between apprenticed servants and african slaves or laborers was fluid, and white and black laborers normally lived and worked together, and formed unions. Mixed-race children born to egg white mothers were considered dislodge by the principle of partus sequitur ventrem, by which children took the social status of their mothers, a principle of slave jurisprudence that was adopted throughout the colonies, following Virginia in 1662. During the colonial era, families of absolve people of tinge were formed most frequently by unions of white women and african men. [ 35 ] many of the free black families migrated to Delaware, where land was cheaper. [ 35 ] As the flow of indenture laborers to the colony decreased with improving economic conditions in England, planters in Maryland imported thousands more slaves and racial caste lines hardened. The economy ‘s increase and prosperity were based on slave tug, devoted first to the product of tobacco as the commodity craw. Maryland was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against british rule in the american Revolution. Near the end of the American Revolutionary War ( 1775–1783 ), on February 2, 1781, Maryland became the last and 13th state to approve the ratification of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, first base proposed in 1776 and adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1778, which brought into being the United States as a connect, sovereign and national state. It besides became the seventh department of state admitted to the Union after ratifying the newfangled federal fundamental law in 1788. In December 1790, Maryland donated farming selected by first President George Washington to the union government for the creation of the newfangled national capital of Washington, D.C. The land was provided along the north land of the Potomac River from Montgomery and Prince George ‘s counties, vitamin a well as from Fairfax County and Alexandria on the south prop up of the Potomac in Virginia ; however, the land donated by the Commonwealth of Virginia was late returned to that state by the District of Columbia retrocession in 1846 .

nineteenth century [edit ]

Influenced by a changing economy, revolutionary ideals, and preaching by ministers, numerous planters in Maryland freed their slaves in the 20 years after the Revolutionary War. Across the Upper South the barren black population increased from less than 1 % before the war to 14 % by 1810. [ 36 ] Abolitionist Harriet Tubman was born a slave during this clock time in Dorchester County, Maryland. [ 37 ] During the War of 1812, the british military attempted to capture Baltimore, which was protected by Fort McHenry. During this bombing the sung “ Star Spangled Banner “ was written by Francis Scott Key ; it was later adopted as the national hymn. The National Road ( U.S. Hwy 40 today ) was authorized in 1817 and ran from Baltimore to St. Louis—the first gear federal highway. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad ( B & O ) was the first chartered railroad in the United States. It opened its beginning section of track for regular operation in 1830 between Baltimore and Ellicott City, [ 38 ] and in 1852 it became the first vilify occupation to reach the Ohio River from the easterly seaside. [ 39 ]

Civil War [edit ]

The department of state remained with the Union during the Civil War, [ 40 ] due in meaning depart to demographics and Federal treatment. The 1860 census, held shortly before the outbreak of the civil war, showed that 49 % of Maryland ‘s african Americans were dislodge blacks. [ 36 ]
Governor Thomas Holliday Hicks suspended the state legislature, and to help ensure the election of a new pro-union governor and legislature, President Abraham Lincoln had a number of its pro-slavery politicians arrested, including the Mayor of Baltimore, George William Brown ; suspended respective civil liberties, including habeas corpus ; and ordered artillery placed on Federal Hill overlooking Baltimore. Historians debate the constitutionality of these wartime actions, and the suspension of civil liberties was later deemed illegal by the U.S. Supreme Court. [ citation needed ] In April 1861 Federal units and submit regiments were attacked as they marched through Baltimore, sparking the Baltimore rioting of 1861, the first bloodshed in the Civil War. [ 41 ] Of the 115,000 men from Maryland who joined the military during the Civil War, 85,000, or 77 %, joined the Union united states army, while the remainder joined the Confederate Army. [ citation needed ] The largest and most meaning battle in the submit was the Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg. Although a tactical draw, the battle was considered a strategic Union victory and a turn indicate of the war .

After the war [edit ]

A new state constitution in 1864 abolish bondage and Maryland was first recognized as a “ free department of state ” in that context. [ 42 ] Following passing of constituent amendments that granted voting rights to freedmen, in 1867 the express extended right to vote to colored males. The democratic Party quickly regained baron in the state from Republicans. Democrats replaced the Constitution of 1864 with the constitution of 1867. Following the end of Reconstruction in 1877, Democrats devised means of disenfranchising blacks, initially by forcible determent and voter fraud, subsequently by built-in amendments and laws. Blacks and immigrants, however, resisted Democratic Party disfranchisement efforts in the state. Maryland blacks were separate of a biracial Republican coalescence elected to country government in 1896–1904 and comprised 20 % of the electorate. [ 43 ] Compared to some early states, blacks were good established both before and after the civil war. about half the black population was release before the war, and some had accumulated property. Half the population lived in cities. Literacy was gamey among blacks and, as Democrats crafted means to exclude them, right to vote campaigns helped reach blacks and teach them how to resist. [ 43 ] Whites did impose racial segregation in public facilities and Jim Crow laws, which effectively lasted until the passage of federal civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s. Baltimore grew significantly during the Industrial Revolution, due in large region to its seaport and estimable dragoon connections, attracting european immigrant labor. many manufacture businesses were established in the Baltimore area after the Civil War. Baltimore businessmen, including Johns Hopkins, Enoch Pratt, George Peabody, and Henry Walters, founded noteworthy city institutions that bear their names, including respectively a university, library system, music and dance conservatory, and art museum. Cumberland was Maryland ‘s second-largest city in the nineteenth hundred. nearby supplies of natural resources along with railroads fostered its increase into a major fabricate center. [ 44 ]

20th and 21st centuries [edit ]

early twentieth hundred [edit ]

The Progressive era of the late 19th and early twentieth centuries brought political reforms. In a series of laws passed between 1892 and 1908, reformers worked for standard state-issued ballots ( preferably than those distributed and marked by the parties ) ; obtained closed voting booths to prevent party workers from “ assisting ” voters ; initiated primary coil elections to keep party bosses from selecting candidates ; and had candidates listed without party symbols, which discouraged the illiterate from participating. These measures worked against ill-educated whites and blacks. Blacks resisted such efforts, with right to vote groups conducting voter education. Blacks defeated three efforts to disenfranchise them, making alliances with immigrants to resist versatile democratic campaigns. [ 43 ] Disenfranchisement bills in 1905, 1907, and 1911 were rebuffed, in large contribution because of black resistance. Blacks comprised 20 % of the electorate and immigrants comprised 15 %, and the legislature had difficulty devising requirements against blacks that did not besides disadvantage immigrants. [ 43 ] The Progressive Era besides brought reforms in working conditions for Maryland ‘s undertaking force out. In 1902, the state regulated conditions in mines ; outlawed child laborers under the senesce of 12 ; mandated compulsory school attendance ; and enacted the nation ‘s first gear workers ‘ recompense law. The workers ‘ compensation law was overturned in the courts, but was redrafted and finally enacted in 1910. The Great Baltimore Fire of 1904 burned for more than 30 hours, destroying 1,526 buildings and spanning 70 city blocks. More than 1,231 firefighters worked to bring the blaze under master .
With the state ‘s entrance into World War I in 1917, new military bases such as Camp Meade, the Aberdeen Proving Ground, and the Edgewood Arsenal were established. Existing facilities, including Fort McHenry, were greatly expanded. After Georgia congressman William D. Upshaw criticized Maryland openly in 1923 for not passing Prohibition laws, Baltimore Sun editor Hamilton Owens coined the “ free country ” dub for Maryland in that context, which was popularized by H. L. Mencken in a series of newspaper editorials. [ 42 ] [ 45 ] Maryland ‘s urban and rural communities had unlike experiences during the Great Depression. The “ Bonus Army “ marched through the state in 1932 on its way to Washington, D.C. Maryland instituted its first income tax in 1937 to generate tax income for schools and social welfare. [ 46 ] passenger and freight steamboat service, once significant throughout Chesapeake Bay and its many tributary rivers, ended in 1962. [ 47 ] Baltimore was a major war production center during World War II. The biggest operations were Bethlehem Steel ‘s Fairfield Yard, which built Liberty ships ; and Glenn Martin, an aircraft manufacturer .
Maryland experienced population growth following World War II. Beginning in the 1960s, as suburban growth took hold around Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, the state began to take on a more middle atlantic polish as opposed to the traditionally Southern and Tidewater culture that previously dominated most of the department of state. agricultural tracts gave means to residential communities, some of them carefully planned such as Columbia, St. Charles, and Montgomery Village. concurrently the Interstate Highway System was built throughout the state, most notably I-95, I-695, and the Capital Beltway, altering travel patterns. In 1952, the easterly and western halves of Maryland were linked for the first time by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge, which replaced a nearby ferry serve. [ 48 ] Maryland ‘s regions experienced economic changes following WWII. Heavy manufacture declined in Baltimore. In Maryland ‘s four westernmost counties, industrial, railroad, and coal mining jobs declined. On the lower Eastern Shore, family farms were bought up by major concerns and large-scale poultry farms and vegetable farm became prevailing. In southerly Maryland, tobacco farming about vanished due to suburban development and a department of state tobacco buy-out plan in the 1990s. In an attempt to reverse depopulation due to the loss of propertyless industries, Baltimore initiated urban refilling projects in the 1960s with Charles Center and the Baltimore World Trade Center. Some resulted in the break-up of intact residential neighborhoods, producing social excitability, and some older residential areas around the seaport have had units renovated and have become popular with new populations .

geography [edit ]

physical regions of Maryland Maryland has an area of 12,406.68 square miles ( 32,133.2 km2 ) and is comparable in overall area with Belgium [ 11,787 straight miles ( 30,530 km2 ) ]. [ 49 ] It is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the country of Hawaii [ 10,930.98 square miles ( 28,311.1 km2 ) ], the future small state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is about doubly the size of Maryland [ 24,229.76 square miles ( 62,754.8 km2 ) ] .

description [edit ]

Maryland possesses a kind of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature. It ranges from arenaceous dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and big bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to lightly rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, and pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west .
Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its north and east by Delaware, on its east by the Atlantic Ocean, and on its south and west, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia. The mid-portion of this latter bound is interrupted by the District of Columbia, which sits on land that was primitively contribution of Montgomery and Prince George ‘s counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland. This farming was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia. ( The Commonwealth of Virginia gave farming south of the Potomac, including the town of Alexandria, Virginia ; however, Virginia retroceded its part in 1846 ). The Chesapeake Bay closely bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known jointly as the Eastern Shore .
typical brackish tidal river. Sunset over a marsh at Cardinal Cove on the Patuxent River Tidal wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States and the largest water feature in Maryland Most of the state ‘s waterways are partially of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a bantam helping of extreme westerly Garrett County ( drained by the Youghiogheny River as part of the river basin of the Mississippi River ), the easterly half of Worcester County ( which drains into Maryland ‘s Atlantic coastal bays ), and a small dowry of the state ‘s northeast corner ( which drains into the Delaware River watershed ). So big is the Chesapeake in Maryland ‘s geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state of matter ‘s official nickname to the “ Bay State ”, a nickname that has been used by Massachusetts for decades. The highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet ( 1,020 thousand ), is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bound with West Virginia, and near the headwaters of the North Branch of the Potomac River. Close to the belittled town of Hancock, in westerly Maryland, about two-thirds of the way across the state, less than 2 miles ( 3.2 kilometer ) separates its borders, [ 50 ] the Mason–Dixon line to the north, and the northwards-arching Potomac River to the confederacy. Portions of Maryland are included in diverse official and unofficial geographic regions. For example, the Delmarva Peninsula is composed of the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland, the entire state of Delaware, and the two counties that make up the Eastern Shore of Virginia, whereas the westernmost counties of Maryland are considered part of Appalachia. Much of the Baltimore–Washington corridor lies merely south of the Piedmont in the Coastal Plain, [ 51 ] though it straddles the bound between the two regions .

geology [edit ]

Earthquakes in Maryland are infrequent and small due to the state ‘s distance from seismic/earthquake zones. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] The M 5.8 Virginia earthquake in 2011 was felt moderately throughout Maryland. Buildings in the submit are not well-designed for earthquakes and can suffer damage easily. [ 54 ] Maryland has no natural lakes, largely due to the miss of glacial history in the area. [ 55 ] All lakes in the state today were constructed, by and large via dams. [ 56 ] Buckel ‘s Bog is believed by geologists to have been a leftover of a former natural lake. [ 57 ] Maryland has shale formations containing natural accelerator, where fracking is theoretically potential. [ 58 ]

Flora [edit ]

As is typical of states on the East Coast, Maryland ‘s plant life is abundant and healthy. A minor volume of annual haste helps to support many types of plants, including seagrass and respective reeds at the smaller end of the spectrum to the gigantic Wye Oak, a huge exercise of white oak, the state tree, which can grow over 70 feet ( 21 megabyte ) tall. Middle Atlantic coastal forests, typical of the southeast Atlantic coastal complain, grow around Chesapeake Bay and on the Delmarva Peninsula. Moving west, a mix of Northeastern coastal forests and Southeastern mix forests cover the central depart of the state. The appalachian Mountains of western Maryland are home to Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests. These give direction to Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests near the West Virginia surround. [ 60 ]
many alien species are cultivated in the department of state, some as ornamentals, others as knickknack species. Included among these are the crimp myrtle, italian cypress, southerly magnolia, populate oak in the warm parts of the state, [ 61 ] and even hardy decoration trees in the warm central and eastern parts of the state. [ 62 ] USDA plant robustness zones in the submit range from Zones 5 and 6 in the extreme western contribution of the state to Zone 7 in the central separate, and Zone 8 around the southerly part of the seashore, the bay sphere, and parts of metropolitan Baltimore. [ 63 ] Invasive plant species, such as kudzu, tree of eden, multiflora rose, and japanese stiltgrass, stifle growth of endemic plant life. [ 64 ] Maryland ‘s country flower, the black-eyed susan, grows in abundance in raving mad flower groups throughout the state .

Fauna [edit ]

The state of matter harbors a considerable number of white-tailed deer, particularly in the arboraceous and cragged west of the state, and overpopulation can become a problem. Mammals can be found ranging from the mountains in the west to the cardinal areas and include black bears, [ 65 ] bobcats, [ 66 ] foxes, coyotes, [ 67 ] raccoons, and otters. [ 65 ]
There is a population of rare raving mad ( feral ) horses found on Assateague Island. [ 68 ] They are believed to be descended from horses who escaped from spanish galleon shipwrecks. [ 68 ] Every year during the last week of July, they are captured and swim across a shallow bay for sale at Chincoteague, Virginia, a conservation proficiency which ensures the bantam island is not overrun by the horses. [ 68 ] The ponies and their sale were popularized by the children ‘s book, Misty of Chincoteague. The purebred Chesapeake Bay Retriever dog was bred specifically for water sports, hunting and search and rescue in the Chesapeake area. [ 69 ] In 1878, the Chesapeake Bay Retriever was the first gear individual retriever engender recognized by the american english Kennel Club. [ 69 ] and was late adopted by the University of Maryland, Baltimore County as their mascot. Maryland ‘s reptile and amphibious population includes the diamondback terrapin capsize, which was adopted as the mascot of University of Maryland, College Park, vitamin a well as the threaten Eastern box turtle. [ 70 ] The submit is part of the territory of the Baltimore old world oriole, which is the official department of state bird and mascot of the MLB team the Baltimore Orioles. [ 71 ] aside from the new world oriole, 435 other species of birds have been reported from Maryland. [ 72 ] The submit insect is the Baltimore checkerspot butterfly, although it is not as coarse in Maryland as it is in the southern border of its range. [ 73 ]

environment [edit ]

Maryland joined with neighbor states during the end of the twentieth century to improve the health of the Chesapeake Bay. The bay ‘s aquatic life and seafood industry have been threatened by development and by fertilizer and livestock waste entering the bay. [ 74 ] [ 75 ] In 2007, Forbes.com rated Maryland as the fifth “ Greenest ” state in the state, behind three of the Pacific States and Vermont. Maryland ranks 40th in total energy consumption countrywide, and it managed less toxic waste per head than all but six states in 2005. [ 76 ] In April 2007, Maryland joined the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative ( RGGI ) — a regional first step, formed by all the Northeastern states, Washington, D.C., and three canadian provinces, to reduce greenhouse gasoline emissions. [ 77 ] In March 2017, Maryland became the first state with prove gas reserves to ban fracking by passing a law against it. Vermont has such a law, but no shale flatulence, and New York has such a banish, though it was made by executive order. [ 58 ]

climate [edit ]

winter in Baltimore, Lancaster Street, Fells Point Maryland has a wide-eyed range of climates, due to local variances in acme, proximity to water, and protection from cold weather due to downslope winds. The eastern half of Maryland — which includes the cities of Ocean City, Salisbury, Annapolis, and the southern and eastern suburbs of Washington, D.C., and Baltimore — lies on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, with flat topography and arenaceous or cloudy territory. This area has a humid subtropical climate ( Köppen Cfa ), with hot, humid summers and a cool to cold winter ; it falls under USDA Hardiness zone 8a. [ 63 ] The Piedmont area — which includes northern and western greater Baltimore, Westminster, Gaithersburg, Frederick, and Hagerstown — has average seasonal snow totals generally exceeding 20 inches ( 51 centimeter ), and, as separate of USDA Hardiness zones 7b and 7a, [ 63 ] temperatures below 10 °F ( −12 °C ) are less rare. From the Cumberland Valley on west, the climate begins to transition to a humid continental climate ( Köppen Dfa ). In western Maryland, the higher elevations of Allegany and Garrett counties—including the cities of Cumberland, Frostburg, and Oakland —display more characteristics of the humid continental zone, due in partially to elevation. They fall under USDA Hardiness zones 6b and below. [ 63 ] precipitation in the state is characteristic of the East Coast. Annual rain ranges from 35 to 45 inches ( 890 to 1,140 mm ) with more in higher elevations. closely every separate of Maryland receives 3.5–4.5 inches ( 89–114 millimeter ) per calendar month of rain. median annual snow varies from 9 inches ( 23 curium ) in the coastal areas to over 100 inches ( 250 centimeter ) in the western mountains of the state. [ 78 ] Because of its location near the Atlantic Coast, Maryland is reasonably vulnerable to tropical cyclones, although the Delmarva Peninsula and the out banks of North Carolina provide a large buffer, such that strikes from major hurricanes ( class 3 or above ) occur infrequently. More frequently, Maryland gets the remnants of a tropical system that has already come ashore and released most of its energy. Maryland averages approximately 30–40 days of thunderstorms a year, and averages around six crack strikes per annum. [ 79 ]

Monthly average high and low temperatures for various Maryland cities and landmarks (covering breadth and width of the state)
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Oakland 34 °F (1 °C)
16 °F (−9 °C)
38 °F (3 °C)
17 °F (−8 °C)
48 °F (9 °C)
25 °F (−4 °C)
59 °F (15 °C)
34 °F (1 °C)
68 °F (20 °C)
45 °F (7 °C)
75 °F (24 °C)
53 °F (12 °C)
79 °F (26 °C)
58 °F (14 °C)
78 °F (26 °C)
56 °F (13 °C)
71 °F (22 °C)
49 °F (9 °C)
62 °F (17 °C)
37 °F (3 °C)
50 °F (10 °C)
28 °F (−2 °C)
39 °F (4 °C)
21 °F (−6 °C)
Cumberland 41 °F (5 °C)
22 °F (−6 °C)
46 °F (8 °C)
24 °F (−4 °C)
56 °F (13 °C)
32 °F (0 °C)
68 °F (20 °C)
41 °F (5 °C)
77 °F (25 °C)
51 °F (11 °C)
85 °F (29 °C)
60 °F (16 °C)
89 °F (32 °C)
65 °F (18 °C)
87 °F (31 °C)
63 °F (17 °C)
80 °F (27 °C)
55 °F (13 °C)
69 °F (21 °C)
43 °F (6 °C)
57 °F (14 °C)
34 °F (1 °C)
45 °F (7 °C)
26 °F (−3 °C)
Hagerstown 39 °F (4 °C)
22 °F (−6 °C)
42 °F (6 °C)
23 °F (−5 °C)
52 °F (11 °C)
30 °F (−1 °C)
63 °F (17 °C)
39 °F (4 °C)
72 °F (22 °C)
50 °F (10 °C)
81 °F (27 °C)
59 °F (15 °C)
85 °F (29 °C)
64 °F (18 °C)
83 °F (28 °C)
62 °F (17 °C)
76 °F (24 °C)
54 °F (12 °C)
65 °F (18 °C)
43 °F (6 °C)
54 °F (12 °C)
34 °F (1 °C)
43 °F (6 °C)
26 °F (−3 °C)
Frederick 42 °F (6 °C)
26 °F (−3 °C)
47 °F (8 °C)
28 °F (−2 °C)
56 °F (13 °C)
35 °F (2 °C)
68 °F (20 °C)
45 °F (7 °C)
77 °F (25 °C)
54 °F (12 °C)
85 °F (29 °C)
63 °F (17 °C)
89 °F (32 °C)
68 °F (20 °C)
87 °F (31 °C)
66 °F (19 °C)
80 °F (27 °C)
59 °F (15 °C)
68 °F (20 °C)
47 °F (8 °C)
56 °F (13 °C)
38 °F (3 °C)
45 °F (7 °C)
30 °F (−1 °C)
Baltimore 42 °F (6 °C)
29 °F (−2 °C)
46 °F (8 °C)
31 °F (−1 °C)
54 °F (12 °C)
39 °F (4 °C)
65 °F (18 °C)
48 °F (9 °C)
75 °F (24 °C)
57 °F (14 °C)
85 °F (29 °C)
67 °F (19 °C)
90 °F (32 °C)
72 °F (22 °C)
87 °F (31 °C)
71 °F (22 °C)
80 °F (27 °C)
64 °F (18 °C)
68 °F (20 °C)
52 °F (11 °C)
58 °F (14 °C)
43 °F (6 °C)
46 °F (8 °C)
33 °F (1 °C)
Elkton 42 °F (6 °C)
24 °F (−4 °C)
46 °F (8 °C)
26 °F (−3 °C)
55 °F (13 °C)
32 °F (0 °C)
67 °F (19 °C)
42 °F (6 °C)
76 °F (24 °C)
51 °F (11 °C)
85 °F (29 °C)
61 °F (16 °C)
88 °F (31 °C)
66 °F (19 °C)
87 °F (31 °C)
65 °F (18 °C)
80 °F (27 °C)
57 °F (14 °C)
69 °F (21 °C)
45 °F (7 °C)
58 °F (14 °C)
36 °F (2 °C)
46 °F (8 °C)
28 °F (−2 °C)
Ocean City 45 °F (7 °C)
28 °F (−2 °C)
46 °F (8 °C)
29 °F (−2 °C)
53 °F (12 °C)
35 °F (2 °C)
61 °F (16 °C)
44 °F (7 °C)
70 °F (21 °C)
53 °F (12 °C)
79 °F (26 °C)
63 °F (17 °C)
84 °F (29 °C)
68 °F (20 °C)
82 °F (28 °C)
67 °F (19 °C)
77 °F (25 °C)
60 °F (16 °C)
68 °F (20 °C)
51 °F (11 °C)
58 °F (14 °C)
39 °F (4 °C)
49 °F (9 °C)
32 °F (0 °C)
Waldorf 44 °F (7 °C)
26 °F (−3 °C)
49 °F (9 °C)
28 °F (−2 °C)
58 °F (14 °C)
35 °F (2 °C)
68 °F (20 °C)
43 °F (6 °C)
75 °F (24 °C)
53 °F (12 °C)
81 °F (27 °C)
62 °F (17 °C)
85 °F (29 °C)
67 °F (19 °C)
83 °F (28 °C)
65 °F (18 °C)
78 °F (26 °C)
59 °F (15 °C)
68 °F (20 °C)
47 °F (8 °C)
59 °F (15 °C)
38 °F (3 °C)
48 °F (9 °C)
30 °F (−1 °C)
Point Lookout State Park 47 °F (8 °C)
29 °F (−2 °C)
51 °F (11 °C)
31 °F (−1 °C)
60 °F (16 °C)
38 °F (3 °C)
70 °F (21 °C)
46 °F (8 °C)
78 °F (26 °C)
55 °F (13 °C)
86 °F (30 °C)
64 °F (18 °C)
89 °F (32 °C)
69 °F (21 °C)
87 °F (31 °C)
67 °F (19 °C)
81 °F (27 °C)
60 °F (16 °C)
71 °F (22 °C)
49 °F (9 °C)
61 °F (16 °C)
41 °F (5 °C)
50 °F (10 °C)
32 °F (0 °C)
[80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88][89]

Demographics [edit ]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1790 319,728
1800 341,548 6.8%
1810 380,546 11.4%
1820 407,350 7.0%
1830 447,040 9.7%
1840 470,019 5.1%
1850 583,034 24.0%
1860 687,049 17.8%
1870 780,894 13.7%
1880 934,943 19.7%
1890 1,042,390 11.5%
1900 1,188,044 14.0%
1910 1,295,346 9.0%
1920 1,449,661 11.9%
1930 1,631,526 12.5%
1940 1,821,244 11.6%
1950 2,343,001 28.6%
1960 3,100,689 32.3%
1970 3,922,399 26.5%
1980 4,216,975 7.5%
1990 4,781,468 13.4%
2000 5,296,486 10.8%
2010 5,773,552 9.0%
2020 6,177,224 7.0%
Source: 1910–2020[90]

In the 2020 United States census, the United States Census Bureau found that population of Maryland was 6,185,278 people, a 7.1 % addition from the 2010 United States census. [ 90 ] The United States Census Bureau estimated that the population of Maryland was 6,045,680 on July 1, 2019, a 4.71 % increase from the 2010 United States census and an increase of 2,962, from the prior year. This includes a lifelike increase since the last census of 269,166 ( 464,251 births minus 275,093 deaths ) and an increase due to net income migration of 116,713 people into the state. immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 129,730 people, and migration within the state produced a final loss of 13,017 people. [ 91 ] The concentrate of population of Maryland is located on the county line between Anne Arundel County and Howard County, in the unincorporated community of Jessup. [ 92 ] Maryland ‘s history as a margin state has led it to exhibit characteristics of both the Northern and the southerly regions of the United States. Generally, rural western Maryland between the West Virginian Panhandle and Pennsylvania has an appalachian culture ; the Southern and Eastern Shore regions of Maryland embody a southerly polish, [ 93 ] while densely populate Central Maryland — radiating outbound from Baltimore and Washington, D.C. — has more in park with that of the Northeast. [ 94 ] The U.S. Census Bureau designates Maryland as one of the South Atlantic States, but it is normally associated with the middle atlantic States and Northeastern United States by other federal agencies, the media, and some residents. [ 95 ] [ 96 ] [ 97 ] [ 98 ] [ 99 ]

Birth data [edit ]

As of 2011, 58.0 percentage of Maryland ‘s population younger than age 1 were minority background. [ 100 ] Note: Births in table don’t add up because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother
Race 2013[101] 2014[102] 2015[103] 2016[104] 2017[105] 2018[106] 2019[107] 2020[108]
White: 41,474 (57.6%) 42,525 (57.5%) 42,471 (57.7%)
> non-Hispanic 32,568 (45.2%) 33,178 (44.9%) 32,412 (44.0%) 31,278 (42.8%) 29,809 (41.6%) 29,585 (41.6%) 28,846 (41.1%) 28,060 (40.9%)
Black 24,764 (34.4%) 25,339 (34.3%) 25,017 (34.0%) 22,829 (31.2%) 22,327 (31.1%) 21,893 (30.8%) 21,494 (30.6%) 20,869 (30.4%)
Asian 5,415 (7.5%) 5,797 (7.8%) 5,849 (7.9%) 5,282 (7.2%) 5,276 (7.3%) 4,928 (6.9%) 4,928 (7.0%) 4,595 (6.7%)
American Indian 300 (0.4%) 260 (0.3%) 279 (0.4%) 104 (0.1%) 127 (0.2%) 114 (0.2%) 113 (0.2%) 79 (0.1%)
Hispanic (of any race) 10,515 (14.6%) 10,974 (14.8%) 11,750 (16.0%) 11,872 (16.2%) 12,223 (17.1%) 12,470 (17.5%) 12,872 (18.3%) 13,034 (19.0%)
Total Maryland 71,953 (100%) 73,921 (100%) 73,616 (100%) 73,136 (100%) 71,641 (100%) 71,080 (100%) 70,178 (100%) 68,554 (100%)
  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

speech [edit ]

spanish ( including spanish Creole ) is the second most talk speech in Maryland, after English. The one-third and fourth most spoken languages are french ( including Patois and Cajun ) and chinese. other normally spoken languages include diverse african languages, Korean, German, Tagalog, Russian, Vietnamese, Italian, versatile asian languages, Persian, Hindi, and early Indic languages, Greek, and Arabic. [ 109 ]

Cities and metro areas [edit ]

Maryland population distribution map. Maryland ‘s population is concentrated largely in the Baltimore and Washington metropolitan areas. Most of the population of Maryland lives in the central area of the state, in the Baltimore metropolitan area and Washington metropolitan area, both of which are separate of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area. The majority of Maryland ‘s population is concentrated in the cities and suburbs surrounding Washington, D.C., american samoa well as in and around Maryland ‘s most populous city, Baltimore. Historically, these and many other Maryland cities developed along the Fall Line, the line along which rivers, brooks, and streams are interrupted by rapids and waterfalls. Maryland ‘s capital city, Annapolis, is one exception to this practice since it lies along the banks of the Severn River, conclusion to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay. The Eastern Shore is less populous and more rural, as are the counties of western Maryland. The two westernmost counties of Maryland, Allegany and Garrett, are mountainous and sparsely populate, resembling West Virginia and Appalachia more than they do the perch of the department of state. Both easterly and western Maryland are, however, dotted with cities of regional importance, such as Ocean City, Princess Anne, and Salisbury on the Eastern Shore and Cumberland, Frostburg, and Hancock in western Maryland. Southern Maryland is still slightly rural, but suburbanization from Washington, D.C., has encroached importantly since the 1960s ; important local population centers include Lexington Park, Prince Frederick, California, and Waldorf. [ 110 ] [ 111 ]

lineage [edit ]

racial Makeup of Maryland excluding Hispanics from racial categories ( 2019 ) [ 112 ]
NH = Non-Hispanic

 

White NH ( 49.82 % )

 

Black NH ( 29.75 % )

 

asian NH ( 6.35 % )

 

native american NH ( 0.25 % )

 

Pacific Islander NH ( 0.04 % )

 

Two or more races NH ( 2.85 % )

 

other NH ( 0.31 % )

 

Hispanic Any Race ( 10.64 % )
In 1970, the U.S. Census Bureau reported Maryland ‘s population as 17.8 percentage african-american and 80.4 percentage non-Hispanic White. [ 117 ] african Americans form a ample share of the state ‘s population, 31.1 % as of 2020. [ 116 ] Most are descendants of people transported to the area as slaves from West Africa, and many are of shuffle race, including european and native american english ancestry. Concentrations of african Americans live in Baltimore City, Prince George ‘s County, a suburb of Washington, D.C., where many work ; Charles County, western parts of Baltimore County, and the southerly Eastern Shore. New residents of african lineage include 20th-century and subsequently immigrants from Nigeria, particularly of the Igbo and Yoruba tribes. [ 118 ] Maryland besides hosts populations from other african and caribbean nations. many immigrants from the Horn of Africa have settled in Maryland, with large communities existing in the suburb of Washington, D.C. ( particularly Montgomery County and Prince George ‘s County ), and the city of Baltimore. The Greater Washington area has the largest population of Ethiopians outside of Africa. [ 119 ] The Ethiopian community of Greater D.C. was historically based in Washington, D.C. ‘s, Adams Morgan and Shaw neighborhoods, but as the community has grown, many Ethiopians have settled in Silver Spring. [ 120 ] The Washington, D.C., metropolitan area is besides home to bombastic Eritrean and Somali communities. The exceed reported ancestries by Maryland residents are : german ( 15 % ), Irish ( 11 % ), English ( 8 % ), American ( 7 % ), italian ( 6 % ), and Polish ( 3 % ). [ 121 ] irish american english populations can be found throughout the Baltimore sphere, [ 122 ] and the Northern and Eastern suburb of Washington, D.C., in Maryland ( descendants of those who moved out to the suburbs [ 123 ] of Washington ‘s once predominantly irish neighborhoods [ 123 ] [ 124 ] ), a well as western Maryland, where irish immigrant laborers helped to build the B & O Railroad. [ 122 ] Smaller but much older irish populations can be found in Southern Maryland, with some roots dating as far back as the early Maryland colony. [ 125 ] This population, however, silent remains culturally very active agent and annual festivals are held. [ 126 ] A big share of the population of the Eastern Shore and Southern Maryland are descendants of british american lineage. The eastern Shore was settled by Protestants, chiefly Methodist and the southern counties were initially settled by English Catholics. western and northern Maryland have large german-american populations. More late european immigrants of the late 19th and early twentieth century settled first in Baltimore, attracted to its industrial jobs. Many of their ethnic italian, Polish, Czech, Lithuanian, and greek descendants still live in the area. large ethnic minorities include easterly Europeans such as Croatians, Belarusians, Russians and Ukrainians. The shares of european immigrants born in Eastern Europe increased importantly between 1990 and 2010. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia, many immigrants from Eastern Europe came to the United States—12 percentage of whom presently reside in Maryland. [ 127 ] [ 128 ] hispanic immigrants of the late twentieth century have settled in Aspen Hill, Hyattsville / Langley Park, Glenmont / Wheaton, Bladensburg, Riverdale Park, Gaithersburg, a well as Highlandtown and Greektown in East Baltimore. Salvadorans are the largest hispanic group in Maryland. other hispanic groups with significant populations in the state include Mexicans and Puerto Ricans and Hondurans. Though the Salvadoran population is more digest in the area around Washington, D.C., and the Puerto Rican population is more concentrated in the Baltimore sphere, all early major spanish american groups in the state are evenly dispersed between these two areas. Maryland has one of the most divers spanish american populations in the state, with significant populations from diverse Caribbean and central american nations. [ 129 ] asian Americans are concentrated in the suburban counties surrounding Washington, D.C., and in Howard County, with korean american and min american communities in Rockville, Gaithersburg, and Germantown and a filipino American community in Fort Washington. Numerous indian Americans live across the state, specially in cardinal Maryland. Attracting educated Asians and Africans to the professional jobs in the area, Maryland has the fifth-largest proportions of racial minorities in the nation. [ 130 ] In 2006, 645,744 were counted as extraneous born, which represents chiefly people from Latin America and Asia. About four percentage are undocumented immigrants. [ 131 ] Maryland besides has a large korean american population. [ 132 ] In fact, 1.7 percentage are Korean, while as a wholly, 6.7 percentage are asian. [ 133 ] According to The Williams Institute ‘s analysis of the 2010 U.S. census, 12,538 same-sex couples are living in Maryland, representing 5.8 same-sex couples per 1,000 households. [ 134 ] In 2019, non-Hispanic ashen Americans were 49.8 % of Maryland ‘s population ( White Americans, including White Hispanics, were 57.3 % ), which made Maryland a majority minority state. [ 135 ] 50.2 % of Maryland ‘s population is colored, or is hispanic or Latino, the highest share of any express on the East Coast, and the highest share after the majority-minority states of Hawaii, New Mexico, Texas, California, and Nevada. [ 136 ] By 2031, minorities are projected to become the majority of voting eligible residents of Maryland. [ 137 ]

religion [edit ]

Maryland has been historically big to American Catholic custom because the English colony of Maryland was intended by George Calvert as a haven for english Catholics. Baltimore was the seat of the inaugural Catholic bishop in the U.S. ( 1789 ), and Emmitsburg was the home and burying target of the beginning American-born citizen to be canonized, St. Elizabeth Ann Seton. Georgetown University, the first Catholic University, was founded in 1789 in what was then share of Maryland. [ 139 ] The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Baltimore was the first Roman Catholic cathedral built in the United States, and the Archbishop of Baltimore is, albeit without courtly primacy, the United States ‘ quasi- primate, [ citation needed ] and often a cardinal. Among the immigrants of the 19th and twentieth centuries from eastern and southerly Europe were many Catholics. Despite its historic relevance to the Catholic Church in the United States, the percentage of Catholics in the country of Maryland is below the national modal of 20 %. Demographically, both Protestants and those identifying with no religion are more numerous than Catholics. According to the Pew Research Center, 69 percentage of Maryland ‘s population identifies themselves as Christian. closely 52 % of the adult population are Protestants. [ bacillus ] Following Protestantism, Catholicism is the second largest religious affiliation, comprising 15 % percentage of the population. [ 138 ] [ 140 ] Amish / Mennonite communities are found in St. Mary ‘s, Garrett, and Cecil counties. [ 141 ] Judaism is the largest non-Christian religion in Maryland, with 241,000 adherents, or four percentage of the total population. [ 142 ] Jews are numerous throughout Montgomery County and in Pikesville and Owings Mills northwest of Baltimore. An calculate 81,500 jewish Americans live in Montgomery County, constituting approximately 10 % of the full population. [ 143 ] The Seventh-day Adventist Church ‘s world headquarters and Ahmadiyya Muslims ‘ national headquarters are located in Silver Spring, good outside the District of Columbia .

economy [edit ]

The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Maryland ‘s gross state product in 2016 was $ 382.4 billion. [ 144 ] however, Maryland has been using Genuine Progress Indicator, an indicator of wellbeing, to guide the state ‘s development, rather than relying lone on growth indicators like GDP. [ 145 ] [ 146 ] According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Maryland households are presently the wealthiest in the state, with a 2013 median family income of $ 72,483 [ 147 ] which puts it ahead of New Jersey and Connecticut, which are second and third respectively. Two of Maryland ‘s counties, Howard and Montgomery, are the second and eleventh wealthiest counties in the nation respectively. Maryland has the most millionaires per head in 2013, with a proportion of 7.7 percentage. [ 148 ] besides, the state ‘s poverty pace of 7.8 percentage is the lowest in the nation. [ 149 ] [ 150 ] [ 151 ] per capita personal income in 2006 was $ 43,500, fifth in the nation. As of March 2022, the state ‘s unemployment pace was 4.6 percentage. [ 152 ] Maryland ‘s economy benefits from the state ‘s proximity to the federal government in Washington, D.C., with an emphasis on technical and administrative tasks for the defense/aerospace diligence and bio-research laboratories, a well as staff of satellite government headquarters in the suburban or exurban Baltimore/Washington area. Ft. Meade serves as the headquarters of the Defense Information Systems Agency, United States Cyber Command, and the National Security Agency / Central Security Service. In addition, a phone number of educational and medical research institutions are located in the state of matter. In fact, the assorted components of The Johns Hopkins University and its medical inquiry facilities are now the largest individual employer in the Baltimore area. Altogether, white collar technical and administrative workers comprise 25 percentage of Maryland ‘s undertaking force, [ citation needed ] attributable in part to nearby Maryland being a separate of the Washington Metro Area where the federal government position use is relatively high gear. manufacture, while large in dollar value, is highly diversify with no sub-sector contributing over 20 percentage of the sum. typical forms of manufacturing admit electronics, calculator equipment, and chemicals. The once-mighty primary metals sub-sector, which once included what was then the largest sword factory in the worldly concern at Sparrows Point, however exists, but is pressed with extraneous contest, bankruptcies, and mergers. During World War II the Glenn Martin Company ( immediately part of Lockheed Martin ) airplane factory employed some 40,000 people. Mining early than construction materials is about express to coal, which is located in the mountainous western share of the express. The brownstone quarries in the east, which gave Baltimore and Washington much of their feature architecture in the mid-19th century, were once a prevailing natural resource. historically, there used to be modest gold-mining operations in Maryland, some near Washington, but these no longer exist .

port of Baltimore [edit ]

One major military service natural process is department of transportation, centered on the Port of Baltimore and its related vilify and hauling access. The port ranked 17th in the U.S. by tonnage in 2008. [ 153 ] Although the port handles a wide kind of products, the most typical imports are bare-assed materials and bulk commodities, such as iron ore, petroleum, boodle, and fertilizers, much distributed to the relatively close manufacture centers of the inland Midwest via good overland transportation system. The port besides receives respective brands of imported motive vehicles and is the count one car port in the U.S. [ 154 ] Baltimore City is among the crown 15 largest ports in the nation, [ 155 ] and was one of six major U.S. ports that were part of the February 2006 controversy over the Dubai Ports World manage. [ 156 ] The state as a whole is heavily industrialized, with a boom economy and influential technology centers. Its calculator industries are some of the most sophisticate in the United States, and the federal government has invested heavily in the area. Maryland is home to several large military bases and scores of high-level government jobs. The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is a 14 miles ( 23 kilometer ) canal on the Eastern Shore that connects the waters of the Delaware River with those of the Chesapeake Bay, and in finical with the Port of Baltimore, carrying 40 percentage of the port ‘s ship traffic. [ 157 ]

Fishing [edit ]

Maryland has a big food-production sector. A big part of this is commercial fishing, centered in the Chesapeake Bay, but besides including action off the curtly Atlantic seashore. The largest catches by species are the blue crab, oysters, striped bass, and menhaden. The Bay besides has overwintering waterfowl in its wildlife refuges. The waterfowl support a tourism sector of sportsmen .

agriculture [edit ]

farming is an important region of the state ‘s economy Maryland has large areas of fat agricultural kingdom in its coastal and Piedmont zones, though this land use is being encroached upon by urbanization. department of agriculture is oriented to dairy agrarian ( specially in foothill and piedmont areas ) for nearby large city milksheads, plus specialization perishable gardening crops, such as cucumbers, watermelons, dulcet corn, tomatoes, muskmelons, squash, and peas ( reference : USDA Crop Profiles ). The southerly counties of the western shoreline of Chesapeake Bay are warm adequate to support a tobacco cash craw zone, which has existed since early on Colonial times, but declined greatly after a state government buy-out in the 1990s. There is besides a big automated chicken -farming sector in the state ‘s southeast part ; Salisbury is home to Perdue Farms. Maryland ‘s food-processing plants are the most significant type of fabrication by value in the state of matter. Farming suffers from weeds as anywhere else, including an unusual reproduce insubordinate ragwort ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia ) found by Rousonelos et al., 2012 with both ALS- and PPO- resistances [ 158 ] and which by 2016 had developed a third, EPSP underground. [ 159 ] This ragwort population is a drag on soy cultivation and as of 7 May 2022 is the worst multiresistant pot problem in the state. [ 159 ]

biotechnology [edit ]

Maryland is a major center for life sciences research and development. With more than 400 biotechnology companies located there, Maryland is the fourth-largest nexus in this field in the United States. [ 160 ] Institutions and politics agencies with an interest in research and development located in Maryland include the Johns Hopkins University, the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, more than one campus of the University System of Maryland, Goddard Space Flight Center, the United States Census Bureau, the National Institutes of Health ( NIH ), the National Institute of Standards and Technology ( NIST ), the National Institute of Mental Health ( NIMH ), the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, the union Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ), the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Celera Genomics company, the J. Craig Venter Institute ( JCVI ), and AstraZeneca ( once MedImmune ). Maryland is home to defense contractor Emergent BioSolutions, which manufactures and provides an anthrax vaccine to U.S. government military personnel. [ 161 ]

tourism [edit ]

The beach fall back town of Ocean City along the Atlantic Ocean is a popular tourist address in Maryland. tourism is democratic in Maryland. many tourists visit Baltimore, the beaches of the Eastern Shore, and the nature of western Maryland. Attractions in Baltimore include the Harborplace, the Baltimore Aquarium, Fort McHenry, a well as the Camden Yards baseball stadium. Ocean City on the Atlantic Coast has been a democratic beach address in summer, particularly since the Chesapeake Bay Bridge was built in 1952 connecting the Eastern Shore to the more populate Maryland cities. [ 48 ] The submit capital of Annapolis offers sites such as the state of matter capitol building, the historic district, and the waterfront. Maryland besides has several sites of interest to military history, given Maryland ‘s character in the American Civil War and in the War of 1812. early attractions include the historic and picturesque towns along the Chesapeake Bay, such as Saint Mary ‘s, Maryland ‘s foremost colonial settlement and original capital. [ 162 ]

healthcare [edit ]

As of 2017, the top two health insurers including all types of indemnity were CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield with 47 % grocery store partake followed by UnitedHealth Group at 15 %. [ 163 ] Maryland has experimented with healthcare requital reforms, notably beginning in the 1970s with an all-payer rate setting program regulated by the Health Services Cost Review Commission. [ 164 ] In 2014, it switched to a ball-shaped budget gross system, whereby hospitals receive a capitated requital to care for their population. [ 164 ]

transportation [edit ]

The Maryland Department of Transportation oversees most transportation system in the express through its assorted administration-level agencies. [ 165 ] The independent Maryland Transportation Authority maintains and operates the state ‘s eight toll facilities .

Roads [edit ]

Maryland ‘s Interstate highways include 110 miles ( 180 kilometer ) of Interstate 95 ( I-95 ), which enters the northeastern part of the state, travels through Baltimore, and becomes separate of the easterly section of the Capital Beltway to the Woodrow Wilson Bridge. I-68 travels 81 miles ( 130 kilometer ), connecting the western portions of the country to I-70 at the small town of Hancock. I-70 enters from Pennsylvania north of Hancock and continues east for 93 miles ( 150 kilometer ) to Baltimore, connecting Hagerstown and Frederick along the manner. I-83 has 34 miles ( 55 kilometer ) in Maryland and connects Baltimore to southerly central Pennsylvania ( Harrisburg and York, Pennsylvania ). Maryland besides has an 11-mile ( 18 kilometer ) fortune of I-81 that travels through the state near Hagerstown. I-97, in full contained within Anne Arundel County and the light ( 17.6 miles ( 28.3 kilometer ) ) one- or two-digit interstate highway in the conterminous US, connects the Baltimore area to the Annapolis area. There are besides several auxiliary Interstate highways in Maryland. Among them are two beltways encircling the major cities of the region : I-695, the McKeldin ( Baltimore ) Beltway, which encircles Baltimore ; and a assign of I-495, the Capital Beltway, which encircles Washington, D.C. I-270, which connects the Frederick area with Northern Virginia and the District of Columbia through major suburbs to the northwest of Washington, is a major commuter road and is a wide as fourteen lanes at points. I-895, besides known as the Harbor Tunnel Thruway, provides an surrogate route to I-95 across the Baltimore Harbor. Both I-270 and the Capital Beltway were extremely congested ; however, the Intercounty Connector ( ICC ; MD 200 ) has alleviated some congestion over meter. structure of the ICC was a major partially of the campaign platform of former Governor Robert Ehrlich, who was in agency from 2003 until 2007, and of Governor Martin O’Malley, who succeeded him. I-595, which is an unsigned highway coincident with US 50 / US 301, is the longest unsigned interstate in the country and connects Prince George ‘s County and Washington, D.C. with Annapolis and the Eastern Shore via the Chesapeake Bay Bridge .
Maryland besides has a state highway system that contains routes numbered from 2 through 999, however most of the higher-numbered routes are either unsigned or are relatively light. major state highways include Routes 2 ( Governor Ritchie Highway/Solomons Island Road/Southern Maryland Blvd. ), 4 ( Pennsylvania Avenue /Southern Maryland Blvd./Patuxent Beach Road/St. Andrew ‘s Church Road ), 5 ( Branch Avenue/Leonardtown Road/Point Lookout Road ), 32, 45 ( York Road ), 97 ( Georgia Avenue ), 100 ( Paul T. Pitcher Memorial Highway ), 210 ( indian Head Highway ), 235 ( Three Notch Road ), 295 ( Baltimore-Washington Parkway ), 355 ( Wisconsin Avenue/Rockville Pike/Frederick Road ), 404 ( Queen Anne Highway/ Shore Highway ), and 650 ( New Hampshire Avenue ) .

Airports [edit ]

Maryland ‘s largest airport is Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, more normally referred to as BWI. The airport is named for the Baltimore-born Thurgood Marshall, the first gear african-american Supreme Court department of justice. The only other airports with commercial service are at Hagerstown and Salisbury. The Maryland suburb of Washington, D.C. are besides served by the other two airports in the region, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and Dulles International Airport, both in Northern Virginia. The College Park Airport is the nation ‘s oldest, founded in 1909, and is still used. Wilbur Wright trained military aviators at this localization. [ 166 ] [ 167 ]

rail [edit ]

Ellicott City Station, on the original B&O Railroad line, is the oldest remaining passenger station in the United States. The rail line is still used by CSX Transportation for freight trains, and the station is now a museum. Amtrak trains, including the high-speed Acela Express serve Baltimore ‘s Penn Station, BWI Airport, New Carrollton, and Aberdeen along the Washington, D.C. to Boston Northeast Corridor. In addition, train service is provided to Rockville and Cumberland by Amtrak ‘s Washington, D.C., to Chicago Capitol Limited. The WMATA ‘s Metrorail rapid theodolite and Metrobus local bus systems ( the 2nd and 6th busy in the nation of their respective modes ) provide service in Montgomery and Prince George ‘s counties and connect them to Washington, D.C., with the express Metrobus Route B30 serving BWI Airport. The Maryland Transit Administration ( often abbreviated as “ MTA Maryland ” ), a submit means share of the Maryland Department of Transportation besides provides transportation system services within the submit. Headquartered in Baltimore, MTA ‘s theodolite services are largely focused on cardinal Maryland, arsenic well as some portions of the Eastern Shore and Southern MD. Baltimore ‘s Light RailLink and Metro SubwayLink systems serve its densely populated inner-city and the surrounding suburb. The MTA besides serves the city and its suburb with its local anesthetic bus service ( the 9th largest organization in the state ). The MTA ‘s Commuter Bus system provides express coach serve on longer routes connecting Washington, D.C. and Baltimore to parts of Central and Southern MD a well as the Eastern Shore. The commuter vilify service, known as MARC, operates three lines which all end at Washington Union Station and provide serve to Baltimore ‘s Penn and Camden stations, Perryville, Frederick, and Martinsburg, WV. In summation, many suburban counties operate local bus systems which connect to and complement the larger MTA and WMATA/Metro services. The MTA will besides administer the Purple Line, an under-construction light railing channel that will connect the Maryland branches of the Red, Green / Yellow, and Orange lines of the Washington Metro, angstrom well as propose transfers to all three lines of the MARC commuter fulminate system. [ 168 ] [ 169 ] Freight train enchant is handled chiefly by two class I railroads, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as several smaller regional and local carriers. CSX Transportation has more extensive trackage throughout the state, with 560 miles ( 900 kilometer ), [ 170 ] followed by Norfolk Southern Railway. Major fulminate yards are located in Baltimore and Cumberland, [ 170 ] with an intermodal terminal ( vilify, truck and nautical ) in Baltimore. [ 171 ]

law and government [edit ]

The government of Maryland is conducted according to the state constitution. The government of Maryland, like the other 49 submit governments, has exclusive authority over matters that lie wholly within the state ‘s borders, except as limited by the Constitution of the United States. baron in Maryland is divided among three branches of government : executive, legislative, and discriminative. The Maryland General Assembly is composed of the Maryland House of Delegates and the Maryland Senate. Maryland ‘s governor is unique in the United States as the office is vested with significant authority in budget. The legislature may not increase the governor ‘s propose budget expenditures. Unlike many other states, significant autonomy is granted to many of Maryland ‘s counties. Most of the business of government is conducted in Annapolis, the country capital. Elections for governor and most statewide offices, angstrom well as most county elections, are held in midterm-election years ( even-numbered years not divisible by four ). The judicial branch of state of matter politics consists of one unite District Court of Maryland that sits in every county and Baltimore City, ampere well as 24 Circuit Courts sitting in each County and Baltimore City, the latter being courts of general jurisdiction for all civil disputes over $ 30,000, all equitable jurisdiction and major criminal proceedings. The intercede appellate court is known as the Court of particular Appeals and the state supreme court is the Court of Appeals. The appearance of the judges of the Maryland Court of Appeals is unique ; Maryland is the entirely express whose judges wear crimson robes. [ 172 ]

tax income [edit ]

Maryland imposes five income tax brackets, ranging from 2 to 6.25 percentage of personal income. [ 173 ] The city of Baltimore and Maryland ‘s 23 counties levy local “ piggyback ” income taxes at rates between 1.25 and 3.2 percentage of Maryland taxable income. local officials set the rates and the tax income is returned to the local governments quarterly. The top income tax bracket of 9.45 percentage is the fifth highest combined country and local income tax rates in the nation, behind New York City ‘s 11.35 percentage, California ‘s 10.3 percentage, Rhode Island ‘s 9.9 percentage, and Vermont ‘s 9.5 percentage. [ 174 ] Maryland ‘s department of state sales tax is six percentage. [ 175 ] All real number property in Maryland is subject to the place tax. [ 176 ] Generally, properties that are owned and used by religious, charitable, or educational organizations or property owned by the federal, country or local governments are excuse. [ 176 ] Property tax rates vary widely. [ 176 ] No restrictions or limitations on property taxes are imposed by the state, meaning cities and counties can set tax rates at the level they deem necessity to fund governmental services. [ 176 ]

Elections [edit ]

Since before the Civil War, Maryland ‘s elections have been largely controlled by the Democrats, which account for 54.9 % of all register voters as of May 2017. [ 177 ] state elections are dominated by Baltimore and the populous suburban counties bordering Washington, D.C., and Baltimore : montgomery, Prince George ‘s, Anne Arundel, and Baltimore counties. As of July 2017, [ 178 ] sixty-six percentage of the state ‘s population resides in these six jurisdictions, most of which contain bombastic, traditionally democratic Voting bloc : african Americans in Baltimore City and Prince George ‘s, federal employees in Prince George ‘s, Anne Arundel, and Montgomery, and post-graduates in Montgomery. The remainder of the state, particularly western Maryland and the Eastern Shore, is more supportive of Republicans. [ citation needed ] One of Maryland ‘s best known political figures is a republican — erstwhile governor Spiro Agnew, who pled no contest to tax evasion and resigned in 1973. [ 179 ] In 1980, Maryland was one of six states to vote for Jimmy Carter. In 1992, Bill Clinton fared better in Maryland than any other state, except his home state of Arkansas. In 1996, Maryland was Clinton ‘s one-sixth best ; in 2000, Maryland ranked fourth for Gore ; and in 2004, John Kerry showed his fifth-best performance in Maryland. In 2008, Barack Obama won the state ‘s 10 electoral votes with 61.9 percentage of the vote, to John McCain ‘s 36.5 percentage. In 2002, early Governor Robert Ehrlich was the first Republican to be elected to that position in four decades, and after one condition, he lost his buttocks to Baltimore Mayor and Democrat Martin O’Malley. Ehrlich ran again for governor in 2010, losing again to O’Malley .

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment of Maryland[180]
Party Total Percentage
Democratic 2,249,296 54.39%
Republican 991,944 23.98%
Independents and unaffiliated 824,969 19.95%
Other parties 69,571 1.68%
Total 4,135,780 100.00%

The 2006 election brought no change in the pattern of democratic authority. After democratic Senator Paul Sarbanes announced that he was retiring, democratic Congressman Benjamin Cardin defeated Republican Lieutenant Governor Michael S. Steele, with 55 percentage of the vote, against Steele ‘s 44 percentage. While Republicans normally win more counties, by piling up bombastic margins in the west and east, they are besides normally swamped by the more densely populate and heavily democratic Baltimore–Washington axis. In 2008, for example, McCain won 17 counties to Obama ‘s six ; Obama besides carried Baltimore City. While McCain won most of the western and easterly counties by margins of 2-to-1 or more, he was about completely shut out in the larger counties surrounding Baltimore and Washington ; every large county, except Anne Arundel, went for Obama. [ 181 ] From 2007 to 2011, U.S. Congressman Steny Hoyer ( MD-5 ), a Democrat, was elected as Majority Leader for the hundred-and-tenth Congress and 111th Congress of the House of Representatives, serving in that post again starting in 2019. In addition, Hoyer served as House Minority Whip from 2003 to 2006 and 2012 to 2018. His district covers parts of Anne Arundel and Prince George ‘s counties, in addition to all of Charles, Calvert, and St. Mary ‘s counties in southerly Maryland. [ 182 ] In 2010, Republicans won control condition of most counties. The democratic Party remained in operate of eight county governments, including that of Baltimore. [ 183 ] In 2014, Larry Hogan, a control Republican, [ 184 ] was elected Governor of Maryland. [ 185 ] Hogan is the irregular Republican to become the Governor of Maryland since Spiro Agnew, who resigned in 1969 to become frailty president of the united states. In 2018, Hogan was re-elected to a second term of office. Per the constitution of Maryland, Hogan is term-limited, and may not run for a third gear consecutive term in the 2022 Maryland gubernatorial election. In a 2020 analyze, Maryland was ranked by the Election Law Journal as the 5th easiest state for citizens to vote in. [ 186 ]

LGBT rights and community [edit ]

The first base person known to describe himself as a scuff queen was William Dorsey Swann, born enslaved in Hancock, Maryland. Swann was the foremost american on record who pursued legal and political action to defend the LGBTQ community ‘s right to assemble. [ 187 ] In February 2010, Attorney General Doug Gansler issued an impression stating that Maryland law should honor same-sex marriages from out of state. At the time, the state Supreme Court wrote a decision uphold marriage discrimination. [ 134 ] On March 1, 2012, Maryland Governor Martin O’Malley signed the freedom to marry bill into police after it passed in the state legislature. Opponents of same-sex marriage began collecting signatures to overturn the law. The law faced a referendum, as motion 6, in the November 2012 election. [ 134 ] A large majority ( 57 % ) of Maryland voters said they would vote to uphold the freedom to marry, with 37 % saying they would vote against. This is consistent with a January 2011 Gonzales Research & Marketing Strategies poll showing 51 % back for marriage in the express. [ 188 ] Voters voted 52 % to 48 % for Question 6 on November 6, 2012. Same-sex couples began marrying in Maryland on January 1, 2013. [ 134 ] In May 2012, Maryland ‘s Court of Appeals ruled that the state will recognize marriages of same-sex couples who married out-of-state, no matter the result of the November election. [ 134 ]

Media [edit ]

A long-familiar newspaper is The Baltimore Sun. many residents of the Washington metropolitan area receive The Washington Post. The most populous areas are served by either Baltimore or Washington, D.C. broadcast stations. The eastern Shore is served primarily by circulate media based around the Delmarva Peninsula ; the northeastern section receives both Baltimore and Philadelphia stations. Garrett County, which is cragged, is served by stations from Pittsburgh, and requires cable or satellite for reception. Maryland is served by statewide PBS member station Maryland Public Television ( MPT ) .

education [edit ]

Primary and secondary coil department of education [edit ]

UMBC Commons and Quad education Week ranked Maryland # 1 in its nationally 2009–2013 timbre Counts reports. [ citation needed ] The College Board ‘s 9th Annual AP Report to the Nation besides ranked Maryland first. [ citation needed ] Primary and secondary education in Maryland is oversee by the Maryland State Department of Education, which is headquartered in Baltimore. [ 189 ] The highest educational official in the state is the State Superintendent of Schools, who is appointed by the State Board of Education to a four-year term of function. The Maryland General Assembly has given the Superintendent and State Board autonomy to make educationally related decisions, limiting its determine on the daily functions of public education. Each county and county-equivalent in Maryland has a local Board of Education charged with running the public schools in that detail legal power. The budget for education was $ 5.5 billion in 2009, representing about 40 percentage of the submit ‘s general fund. [ 190 ] Data from the 2017 census shows that, among large school districts, four Maryland districts are in the crown six for per-pupil annual spend, exceeded only by the Boston and New York City districts. [ 191 ] Maryland has a broad range of secret elementary and secondary schools. many of these are affiliated with diverse religious sects, including parochial schools of the Catholic Church, Quaker schools, Seventh-day Adventist schools, and jewish schools. In 2003, Maryland law was changed to allow for the creation of publicly funded charter schools, although the charter schools must be approved by their local Board of Education and are not exempt from state laws on education, including collective bargain laws. In 2008, the state led the entire nation in the share of students passing Advanced Placement examinations. 23.4 percentage of students earned passing grades on the AP tests given in May 2008. This marks the first year that Maryland earned this honor. [ 192 ] Three Maryland high schools ( in Montgomery County ) were ranked among the crown 100 in the nation by US News in 2009, based in big part on AP test scores. [ 193 ]

Colleges and universities [edit ]

Maryland has several historic and celebrated private colleges and universities, the most big of which is Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876 with a grant from Baltimore entrepreneur Johns Hopkins. The first populace university in the department of state is the University of Maryland, Baltimore, which was founded in 1807 and contains the University of Maryland ‘s only populace academic health, human services, and one of two law centers ( the early being the University of Baltimore School of Law ). Seven professional and graduate schools train the majority of the state of matter ‘s physicians, nurses, dentists, lawyers, social workers, and pharmacists. [ 194 ] The flagship university and largest undergraduate initiation in Maryland is the University of Maryland, College Park which was founded as the Maryland Agricultural College in 1856 and became a public land grant college in 1864. Towson University, founded in 1866, is the submit ‘s second largest university. In 1974, Maryland, along with seven other states, chiefly in the South, submitted plans to desegregate its state of matter universities ; Maryland ‘s plans were approved by the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. [ 195 ] Baltimore is base to the University of Maryland, Baltimore County and the Maryland Institute College of Art. The majority of populace universities in the country ( Bowie State University, Coppin State University, Frostburg State University, Salisbury University and the University of Maryland-Eastern Shore ) are affiliated with the University System of Maryland. Two state-funded institutions, Morgan State University and St. Mary ‘s College of Maryland, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as two federally fund institutions, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and the United States Naval Academy, are not affiliated with the University System of Maryland. The University of Maryland Global Campus is the largest public university in Maryland [ 196 ] and one of the largest distance-learning institutions in the world. [ 197 ] St. John ‘s College in Annapolis and Washington College in Chestertown, both private institutions, are the oldest colleges in the state and among the oldest in the country. other private institutions include Mount St. Mary ‘s University, McDaniel College ( once known as western Maryland College ), Hood College, Stevenson University ( once known as Villa Julie College ), Loyola University Maryland, and Goucher College, among others .

Public libraries [edit ]

Maryland ‘s 24 public library systems deliver public education for everyone in the state of Maryland through a course of study that comprises three pillars : autonomous Education ( books and materials in all formats, e-resources ), Research Assistance & Instruction ( individualized research aid, classes for students of all ages ), and Instructive & Enlightening Experiences ( for example, Summer Reading Clubs, generator events ). Maryland ‘s library systems include, in separate :
many of the library systems have established formalized partnerships with early educational institutions in their counties and regions. [ 199 ]

Sports [edit ]

With two major metropolitan areas, Maryland has a phone number of major and minor professional sports franchises. Two National Football League teams play in Maryland, the Baltimore Ravens in Baltimore and the Washington Commanders in Landover. The Baltimore Colts represented the NFL in Baltimore from 1953 to 1983 before moving to Indianapolis. The Baltimore Orioles are the express ‘s Major League Baseball franchise. The National Hockey League ‘s Washington Capitals and the National Basketball Association ‘s Washington Wizards once played in Maryland, until the construction of an sphere in Washington, D.C. in 1997 ( now known as Capital One Arena ). University of Maryland ‘s team is the Maryland Terrapins. Maryland enjoys considerable diachronic think of for the talented sports players of its past, including Cal Ripken Jr. and Babe Ruth. In 2012, The Baltimore Sun published a list of Maryland ‘s top ten athletes in the state ‘s history. The list includes Babe Ruth, Cal Ripken Jr, Johnny Unitas, Brooks Robinson, Frank Robinson, Ray Lewis, Michael Phelps, Jimmie Foxx, Jim Parker, and Wes Unseld. [ 200 ] other master sports franchises in the state include three affiliated minor league baseball teams, one independent league baseball team, the Baltimore Blast indoor soccer team, two indoor football teams, three low-level outdoor soccer teams, and the Chesapeake Bayhawks of Major League Lacrosse. Maryland is besides home to one of the three races in horse race ‘s annual Triple Crown, the Preakness Stakes, which is run every bounce at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore. The Baltimore Stallions were a canadian Football team in the CFL that played the 1994–95 season. The congressional country Club has hosted three golf tournaments for the U.S. Open and a PGA Championship. The official country sport of Maryland, since 1962, is jousting ; the official team sport since 2004 is lacrosse. [ 201 ] The National Lacrosse Hall of Fame is located on the Johns Hopkins University campus in Baltimore. In 2008, intending to promote physical seaworthiness for all ages, walking became the official state exert. Maryland is the first state of matter with an official state exercise. [ 202 ]

Friendship partners [edit ]

Maryland has relationships with many provinces, states, and other entities worldwide .

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

References [edit ]

bibliography [edit ]

Coordinates :

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.